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Lei Liu and Fei Hu

Abstract

The intermittency of atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in the understanding of particle dispersal in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the statistical simulation of high-frequency wind speed in various applications. There are two kinds of intermittency, namely, the magnitude intermittency (MI) related to non-Gaussianity and the less studied clusterization intermittency (CI) related to long-term correlation. In this paper, we use a 20 Hz ultrasonic dataset lasting for 1 month to study CI of turbulent velocity fluctuations at different scales. Basing on the analysis of return-time distribution of telegraphic approximation series, we propose to use the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution to measure CI. Observations of this parameter show that contrary to MI, CI tends to weaken as the scale increases. Besides, significant diurnal variations, showing that CI tends to strengthen during the daytime (under unstable conditions) and weaken during the nighttime (under stable conditions), are found at different observation heights. In the convective boundary layer, the mixed-layer similarity is found to scale the CI exponent better than the Monin–Obukhov similarity. At night, CI is found to vary less with height in the regime with large mean wind speeds than in the regime with small mean wind speeds, according to the hockey-stick theory.

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Fangyu Liu, Wenjun Zhang, Fei-Fei Jin, and Suqiong Hu

Abstract

Many previous studies have shown that an Indian Ocean basin warming (IOBW) occurs usually during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) decaying spring to summer seasons through modifying the equatorial zonal circulation. Decadal modulation associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) is further investigated here to understand the nonstationary ENSO-IOBW relationship during ENSO decaying summer (July-August-September, JAS). During the positive IPO phase, significant warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are observed over the tropical Indian Ocean in El Niño decaying summers and vice versa for La Niña events, while these patterns are not well detected in the negative IPO phase. Different decaying speeds of ENSO associated with the IPO phase, largely controlled by both zonal advective and thermocline feedbacks, are suggested to be mainly responsible for these different ENSO-IOBW relationships. In contrast to ENSO events in the negative IPO phase, the ones in the positive IPO phase display a slower decaying speed and delay their transitions both from a warm to a cold state and a cold to a warm state. The slower decay of El Niño and La Niña thereby helps to sustain the teleconnection forcing over the equatorial Indian Ocean and corresponding SST anomalies there can persist into summer. This IPO modulation of the ENSO-IOBW relationship carries important implications for the seasonal prediction of the Indian Ocean SST anomalies and associated summer climate anomalies.

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Juli Ding, Jianfang Fei, Xiaogang Huang, Xiaoping Cheng, and Xiaohua Hu

Abstract

On the basis of global positioning system dropsonde data, Japan Meteorology Agency Regional Spectral Model analysis data, National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis data, satellite products from the Naval Research Laboratory, and best-track tropical-cyclone (TC) datasets from the Shanghai Typhoon Institute, the statistical characteristics of the ducts induced by TCs (TC ducts) over the western North Pacific Ocean were analyzed for the period from September 2003 to September 2006, and two typical strong-duct cases with remarkable differences in formation cause were analyzed and compared. Of the total of 357 dropsondes, there are 212 cases that show ducting conditions, with an occurrence percentage of ~59%. Of the 212 TC-duct events, profiles with multiple ducting layers make up nearly one-half, with the main type of ducts being elevated ducts; in contrast, weak ducts make up over one-half, resulting in a weak median duct strength and thickness. Ducts formed in the transition zone, especially on the left side of TC tracks, tend to be much stronger and thicker than those formed inside TCs. The former are induced by the interaction between TCs and their surrounding systems, such as the inrush of dry and cold air from the north on the left side of TC tracks. The latter are associated with successive subsidence in the gaps between spiral cloud bands. With increasing TC intensities, the associated ducts inside TCs tend to be much stronger and thicker and to appear at higher altitudes.

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Zeng-Zhen Hu, Arun Kumar, Hong-Li Ren, Hui Wang, Michelle L’Heureux, and Fei-Fei Jin

Abstract

An interdecadal shift in the variability and mean state of the tropical Pacific Ocean is investigated within the context of changes in El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Compared with 1979–99, the interannual variability in the tropical Pacific was significantly weaker in 2000–11, and this shift can be seen by coherent changes in both the tropical atmosphere and ocean. For example, the equatorial thermocline tilt became steeper during 2000–11, which was consistent with positive (negative) sea surface temperature anomalies, increased (decreased) precipitation, and enhanced (suppressed) convection in the western (central and eastern) tropical Pacific, which reflected an intensification of the Walker circulation.

The combination of a steeper thermocline slope with stronger surface trade winds is proposed to have hampered the eastward migration of the warm water along the equatorial Pacific. As a consequence, the variability of the warm water volume was reduced and thus ENSO amplitude also decreased. Sensitivity experiments with the Zebiak–Cane model confirm the link between thermocline slope, wind stress, and the amplitude of ENSO.

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

Abstract

Variability of oceanic salinity, an indicator of the global hydrological cycle, plays an important role in the basin-scale ocean circulation. In this study, interannual to decadal variability of salinity in the upper layer of the Indian Ocean is investigated using Argo observations since 2004 and data assimilating model outputs (1992–2015). The southeastern Indian Ocean shows the strongest interannual to decadal variability of upper-ocean salinity in the Indian Ocean. Westward propagation of salinity anomalies along isopycnal surfaces is detected in the southern Indian Ocean and attributed to zonal salinity advection anomalies associated with the Indonesian Throughflow and the South Equatorial Current. Composite and salinity budget analyses show that horizontal advection is a major contributor to the interannual to decadal salinity variability of the southern Indian Ocean, and the local air–sea freshwater flux plays a secondary role. The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulate the salinity variability in the southeastern Indian Ocean, with low salinity anomalies occurring during the negative phases of the PDO and ENSO and high salinity anomalies during their positive phases. The Indonesian Throughflow plays an essential role in transmitting the PDO- and ENSO-related salinity signals into the Indian Ocean. A statistical model is proposed based on the PDO index, which successfully predicts the southeastern Indian Ocean salinity variability with a lead time of 10 months.

Open access
Jianchuan Shu, Wenshou Tian, Dingzhu Hu, Jiankai Zhang, Lin Shang, Hongying Tian, and Fei Xie

Abstract

Using satellite observations together with a chemistry–climate model (CCM), the effect of the stratospheric semiannual oscillation (SAO) and quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the equatorial double peak in observed CH4 and NO2 is reexamined. It is concluded that the lower-equatorial Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) CH4 mixing ratio of the April double peak in 1993 and 1995 was associated with the prominent first cycle of the SAO westerlies, which causes local vertical downwelling in the upper equatorial stratosphere. The observational evidences imply that the strong westerlies of the first cycle of the stratospheric SAO in 1993 and 1995 were driven by enhanced lower-stratospheric gravity wave activity in the early parts of those years. The CCM simulations further verify that the gravity wave source strength has a large impact on the development and strength of the SAO westerlies. This result suggests that the equatorial long-lived tracer mixing ratio near the stratopause (which is associated with the strength of the SAO westerlies) was not only modulated by the QBO phase, but was also significantly influenced by interannual variation in the gravity waves. It is also found that the deeper equatorial trough of the double peak is unlikely to be always accompanied by the more prominent Northern Hemispheric lobe, and the Northern Hemispheric lobe of the double peak can be mainly attributed to subtropical upwelling. The altitude of greatest chemical destruction anomalies associated with the SAO and QBO is below the trough of the double peak, implying that the effect of the chemical process on the double peak is insignificant.

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Yujue Liu, Yubao Liu, Domingo Muñoz-Esparza, Fei Hu, Chao Yan, and Shiguang Miao

Abstract

A multiscale modeling study of a real case has been conducted to explore the capability of the large-eddy simulation version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-LES) over Xiaohaituo Mountain (a game zone for the Beijing, China, 2022 Winter Olympic Games). In comparing WRF-LES results with observations collected during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Observations and Modeling (MOUNTAOM) field campaign, it is found that at 37-m resolution with LES settings, the model can reasonably capture both large-scale events and microscale atmospheric circulation characteristics. Employing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 1 arc s dataset (SRTM1; ~30 m) high-resolution topographic dataset instead of the traditional USGS_30s (~900 m) dataset effectively improves the model capability for reproducing fluctuations and turbulent features of surface winds. Five sensitivity experiments are conducted to investigate the impact of different PBL treatments, including YSU/Shin and Hong (SH) PBL schemes and LES with 1.5-order turbulence kinetic energy closure model (1.5TKE), Smagorinsky (SMAG), and nonlinear backscatter and anisotropy (NBA) subgrid-scale (SGS) stress models. In this case, at gray-zone scales, differences between YSU and SH are negligible. LES outperform two PBL schemes that generate smaller turbulence kinetic energy and increase the model errors for mean wind speed, energy spectra, and probability density functions of velocity. Another key finding is that wind field features in the boundary layer over complex terrain are more sensitive to the choice of SGS models than above the boundary layer. With the increase of model resolution, the effects of the SGS model become more significant, especially for the statistical characteristics of turbulence. Among these three SGS models, NBA has the best performance. Overall, this study demonstrates that WRF-LES is a promising tool for simulating real weather flows over complex terrain.

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Tao Wang, Wenshou Tian, Jiankai Zhang, Fei Xie, Ruhua Zhang, Jinlong Huang, and Dingzhu Hu

Abstract

Using various observations, reanalysis datasets, and a general circulation model (CESM-WACCM4), the relationship between the Arctic total column ozone (TCO) and the tropospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the western North Pacific (30°–45°N, 130°E–170°W) was investigated. We find that anomalies in the circulation and SSTs over the western North Pacific in June are closely related to anomalies in the Arctic TCO in March; that is, when the Arctic TCO in March decreases, the anomalous tropospheric cyclone and negative SST anomalies (SSTAs) will occur over the western North Pacific in June. Further analysis indicates that the decreased Arctic TCO in March tends to result in positive Victoria mode (VM)-like SSTAs over the North Pacific in April, which persist and develop an anomalous cyclone over the eastern North Pacific in May via atmosphere–ocean coupling. This anomalous cyclone over the eastern North Pacific subsequently induces an anomalous cyclone over the western North Pacific in June via westward-propagating Rossby waves in the lower troposphere. Furthermore, the negative SSTAs over the western North Pacific are enhanced by the anomalous northerly wind related to the anomalous cyclone in June. The effects of increased Arctic TCO in March on the tropospheric circulation and SSTs are almost opposite to those of decreased Arctic TCO. These results are also supported by our numerical simulations. Moreover, 10%–20% of the anomalies in the tropospheric circulation and SSTs over the western North Pacific in June are affected by the anomalies in the Arctic TCO in March.

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Xuhui Lee, Zhiqiu Gao, Chaolin Zhang, Fei Chen, Yinqiao Hu, Weimei Jiang, Shuhua Liu, Longhua Lu, Jielun Sun, Jiemin Wang, Zhihua Zeng, Qiang Zhang, Ming Zhao, and Mingyu Zhou
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Ping Zhao, Xiangde Xu, Fei Chen, Xueliang Guo, Xiangdong Zheng, Liping Liu, Yang Hong, Yueqing Li, Zuo La, Hao Peng, Linzhi Zhong, Yaoming Ma, Shihao Tang, Yimin Liu, Huizhi Liu, Yaohui Li, Qiang Zhang, Zeyong Hu, Jihua Sun, Shengjun Zhang, Lixin Dong, Hezhen Zhang, Yang Zhao, Xiaolu Yan, An Xiao, Wei Wan, Yu Liu, Junming Chen, Ge Liu, Yangzong Zhaxi, and Xiuji Zhou

Abstract

This paper presents the background, scientific objectives, experimental design, and preliminary achievements of the Third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX-III) for 8–10 years. It began in 2013 and has expanded plateau-scale observation networks by adding observation stations in data-scarce areas; executed integrated observation missions for the land surface, planetary boundary layer, cloud–precipitation, and troposphere–stratosphere exchange processes by coordinating ground-based, air-based, and satellite facilities; and achieved noticeable progress in data applications. A new estimation gives a smaller bulk transfer coefficient of surface sensible heat over the TP, which results in a reduction of the possibly overestimated heat intensity found in previous studies. Summer cloud–precipitation microphysical characteristics and cloud radiative effects over the TP are distinguished from those over the downstream plains. Warm rain processes play important roles in the development of cloud and precipitation over the TP. The lower-tropospheric ozone maximum over the northeastern TP is attributed to the regional photochemistry and long-range ozone transports, and the heterogeneous chemical processes of depleting ozone near the tropopause might not be a dominant mechanism for the summer upper-tropospheric–lower-stratospheric ozone valley over the southeastern TP. The TP thermodynamic function not only affects the local atmospheric water maintenance and the downstream precipitation and haze events but also modifies extratropical atmospheric teleconnections like the Asia–Pacific Oscillation, subtropical anticyclones over the North Pacific and Atlantic, and temperature and precipitation over Africa, Asia, and North America. These findings provide new insights into understanding land–atmosphere coupled processes over the TP and their effects, improving model parameterization schemes, and enhancing weather and climate forecast skills.

Open access