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  • Author or Editor: Francesco Zaratti x
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Joseph Egger, Luis Blacutt, Flavio Ghezzi, Richard Heinrich, Philip Kolb, Stephan Lämmlein, Martin Leeb, Stephanie Mayer, Eduardo Palenque, Joachim Reuder, Wolfgang Schäper, Jan Schween, Rene Torrez, and Francesco Zaratti

Abstract

In July and August 2003 a field campaign was conducted to explore the diurnal circulation of the Bolivian Altiplano. Vertical soundings by remote-controlled aircraft yielded profiles of temperature, pressure, and humidity at six passes and in a valley. Pilot balloon observations provided wind profiles. Two permanent stations collected additional data. Typically, inflow toward the Altiplano commences a few hours after sunrise at about the time when the stable nocturnal layer near the ground is transformed by the solar heating into an almost neutrally stratified convective boundary layer. The depth of the inflow layer is comparable to but normally less than that of this boundary layer. There are indications of return flow aloft. The inflow continues at least until sunset. Moisture is imported at the passes leading to the Yungas in the east. Strong upvalley flows were found in the valley of the Rio de La Paz, which connects the wide canyon of La Paz with the tropical lowlands to the east. Inflow was absent at one of the passes despite favorable synoptic conditions. Cases of synoptically forced flows are presented as well where the diurnal signal is difficult to separate. A simple flow scheme is presented that fits the observations reasonably well.

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Juan Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Eduardo Landulfo, René Estevan, Boris Barja, Alan Robock, Elián Wolfram, Pablo Ristori, Barclay Clemesha, Francesco Zaratti, Ricardo Forno, Errico Armandillo, Álvaro E. Bastidas, Ángel M. de Frutos Baraja, David N. Whiteman, Eduardo Quel, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Fabio Lopes, Elena Montilla-Rosero, and Juan L. Guerrero-Rascado

Abstract

Sustained and coordinated efforts of lidar teams in Latin America at the beginning of the twenty-first century have built the Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET), the only observational network in Latin America created by the agreement and commitment of Latin American scientists. They worked with limited funding but an abundance of enthusiasm and commitment toward their joint goal. Before LALINET, there were a few pioneering lidar stations operating in Latin America, described briefly here. Biannual Latin American lidar workshops, held from 2001 to the present, supported both the development of the regional lidar community and LALINET. At those meetings, lidar researchers from Latin America met to conduct regular scientific and technical exchanges among themselves and with experts from the rest of the world. Regional and international scientific cooperation has played an important role in the development of both the individual teams and the network. The current LALINET status and activities are described, emphasizing the processes of standardization of the measurements, methodologies, calibration protocols, and retrieval algorithms. Failures and successes achieved in the buildup of LALINET are presented. In addition, the first LALINET joint measurement campaign and a set of aerosol extinction profile measurements obtained from the aerosol plume produced by the Calbuco volcano eruption on 22 April 2015 are described and discussed.

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