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G. W. K. Moore

Abstract

Cape Farewell, Greenland’s southernmost point, is characterized by a number of low-level jets that are the result of topographic flow distortion associated with passing extratropical cyclones. The heavy seas associated with these wind events are a hazard to maritime traffic in the region. In addition, the air–sea heat flux associated with these weather systems plays an important role in the climate system by contributing to the forcing of the lower limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. In this paper, the North American Regional Reanalysis will be used to generate a higher-resolution climatology of these mesoscale jets as compared to previous studies. Through the use of a diagnostic that partitions the occurrence frequency of high-speed wind events by wind direction, the author shows that there are four different types of Cape Farewell tips jets that are characterized as having either northwesterly, southwesterly, northeasterly, or southeasterly wind direction. All four types have distinct regions in the vicinity of Cape Farewell where their respective occurrence frequencies and air–sea heat fluxes are at a maximum. The southwesterly and northeasterly jets closely resemble the wind systems previously identified as being westerly and easterly tip jets. There are also instances where one type evolves into another and so it is possible to view westerly tip jets as a continuum with the northwesterly and southwesterly events identified in this paper representing end members with a similar picture for easterly tip jets. The position of a particular event along these continua will determine its impact on local weather and the coupled climate system.

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Ian A. Renfrew and G. W. K. Moore

Abstract

Observational data from two research aircraft flights are presented. The flights were planned to investigate the air–sea interaction during an extreme cold-air outbreak, associated with the passage of a synoptic-scale low pressure system over the Labrador Sea during 8 February 1997. This is the first such aircraft-based investigation in this remote region. Both high-level dropsonde and low-level flight-level data were collected. The objectives were twofold: to map out the structure of the roll vortices that cause the ubiquitous cloud streets seen in satellite imagery, and to estimate the sensible and latent heat fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere during the event. The latter was achieved by a Lagrangian analysis of the flight-level data. The flights were part of the Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment, investigating deep oceanic convection, and were planned to overpass a research vessel in the area.

The aircraft-observed roll vortices had a characteristic wavelength of 4–5 km, particularly evident in the water vapor signal. Unlike observations of roll vortices in other regions, a roll signature was absent from the temperature data. Analysis of satellite imagery shows the cloud streets had a characteristic wavelength of 7–10 km, indicating a multiscale roll vortex regime. There was a dramatic deepening of the boundary layer with fetch, and also with time. Off the ice edge, surface sensible heat fluxes of 500 W m−2 and surface latent heat fluxes of 100 W m−2 were measured, with uncertainties of ±20%. The very cold air is thought to be responsible for the unusually high Bowen ratio observed.

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Vladimir V. Smirnov and G. W. K. Moore

Abstract

The transport of water vapor through the Mackenzie River basin, a typical high-latitude river basin, is examined for the period from August to October 1994. The spatial and temporal variability in the transport is considered with both objectively analyzed fields and radiosonde data.

Previous studies of the high-latitude water vapor have made use of radiosonde data and have been able to document some features of annual cycle of water vapor transport. These studies have left unresolved many important aspects of moisture transport processes. In particular, detailed information as to the spatial and temporal variation of the transport has not been fully documented or understood. In order to address these important issues, the authors make use of the objectively analyzed fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts to study the high-latitude transport of water vapor. This paper presents findings regarding the transport of water vapor over northern parts of North America. It is shown that the transport is highly variable in time with transient synoptic-scale disturbances being responsible for much of the transport. The prospect of using the objectively analyzed fields to determine the spatial structure of humidity fluxes and the evaporation–precipitation field in data-sparse high-latitude regions is discussed. The results obtained with the objectively analyzed fields are compared with those obtained directly from radiosonde data for stations in and around the basin. The influence that the local land topography has on the regional water vapor balance is also discussed.

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S. Sathiyamoorthy and G. W. K. Moore

Abstract

Deep water formation at high latitudes is believed to be the driving mechanism behind the ocean's thermohaline circulation. The exchange of heat and water with the atmosphere causes the density of the surface waters to change, with subsequent downwelling and upwelling resulting as the system relaxes toward convective equilibrium. The characteristics of this atmosphere–ocean exchange are examined by studying the temporal variability of the buoyancy flux at OWS Bravo, a location where deep water formation is known to occur. The authors find that there is significant high-frequency variability in the buoyancy flux attributable to the passage of synoptic weather systems, variability that is masked by monthly analyses. At high latitudes, precipitation plays a significant role in the buoyancy flux. If it is ignored, the buoyancy loss is overestimated (positive coordinate is downward). Precipitation also causes the buoyancy flux to become positive during the passage of a cyclone. The timescale for this change in buoyancy flux is found to be similar to the timescale for the convective plumes in the ocean, suggesting a link between the two. In addition, a strong negative correlation is found to exist between the sensible heat flux at Bravo and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

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S. Sathiyamoorthy and G. W. K. Moore

Abstract

A novel way of quantifying the variance of a time series is presented. The method first involves filtering the time series using filters with different temporal characteristics, and then using a moving window to calculate the variances in each filtered time series. The use of a moving window allows the original temporal resolution to be retained, as well as allowing one to study how the variance changes with time. Air–sea interaction time series from Ocean Weather Station (OWS) Bravo in the Labrador Sea are analyzed as an example. High-pass, bandpass, and low-pass filters are used to isolate the diurnal signal, the storm/cyclone signature, and the weather regime transition signal, respectively. The variance during the winter months is found to be strongly influenced by weather systems in the bandpass and the low-pass frequency range. The variance during the summer months, on the other hand, is dominated by the shortwave radiation in the high-pass frequency range.

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Mariusz Pagowski and G. W. K. Moore

Abstract

In this paper, the ability of the MM5 mesoscale forecast model to simulate the air–sea interaction, boundary layer development, and mesoscale structure associated with a cold-air outbreak over the Labrador Sea is investigated. The case chosen was one for which research aircraft data and satellite imagery are available for validation. The default surface-layer parameterization included in the model is shown to grossly overestimate the magnitude of the air–sea interaction resulting in forecasts of boundary layer growth and mesoscale development that differ substantially from observations. It is also shown that a representation of the inhomogeneities in sea-ice cover results in a significant improvement in simulations of the air–sea interaction, boundary layer development, and mesoscale structure both within the marginal ice zone and downstream over the open ocean. Finally, the mesoscale cyclones or polar lows observed in the wake of the cold-air outbreak are shown to be coupled to the evolution of an upper-tropospheric potential vorticity anomaly that was advected over the region. The model simulations suggest that MM5, most probably due to inaccuracies in and the limited resolution of the analyzed fields that supply the initial and boundary conditions to the model, was unable to correctly simulate the development and track of this anomaly and this ultimately led to an incorrect forecast of the polar lows’ finite-amplitude behavior.

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Hongxu Zhao and G. W. K. Moore

Abstract

Although the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) have been identified as important modes of climate variability during the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter, whether the AO or the NAO is more fundamental to the description of this variability, especially in the North Pacific, is still an open question. An important contributor to this uncertainty is the lack of knowledge of the low-frequency linkages between the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. This paper explores the linkage between the two oceanic basins on interdecadal time scales using the sea level pressure (SLP) field during the twentieth century. In particular, it is shown that the winter mean SLP in the North Pacific was positively correlated with the sign of the NAO during the periods of 1925–50 and 1980–98, which resulted in the classical AO pattern being the dominant mode in the NH. In contrast, during the period of 1951–79, the winter mean SLP in the two basins was decoupled, resulting in a dominant mode that more closely resembled the NAO. Using paleoclimate reconstructions, it is also shown that this interdecadal variability in the North Pacific climate began around 1850, which is nominally considered to be the end of the Little Ice Age.

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G. W. K. Moore and I. A. Renfrew

Abstract

With the completion of the NCEP–NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses there are now global representations of air–sea surface heat fluxes with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to be useful in characterizing the air–sea interaction associated with individual weather systems, as well as in developing global-scale oceanic heat and moisture budgets. However, these fluxes are strongly dependent on the numerical models used, and, as a result, there is a clear need to validate them against observations. Accurate air–sea heat flux estimates require a realistic representation of the atmospheric boundary layer, and the implementation of an appropriate surface flux parameterization. Previous work at high latitudes has highlighted the shortcomings of the surface turbulent heat flux parameterization used in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis during high wind speed conditions, especially when combined with large air–sea temperature differences. Here the authors extend this result through an examination of the air–sea heat fluxes over the western boundary currents of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. These are also regions where large transfers of heat and moisture from the ocean to the atmosphere take place. A comparison with in situ data shows that the surface layer meteorological fields are reasonably well represented in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis, but the turbulent heat flux fields contain significant systematic errors. It is argued that these errors are associated with shortcomings in the bulk flux algorithm employed in the reanalysis. Using the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis surface layer meteorological fields and a more appropriate bulk flux algorithm, “adjusted” fields for the sensible and latent heat fluxes are presented that more accurately represent the air–sea exchange of heat and moisture over the western boundary currents.

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A. Q. Liu and G. W. K. Moore

Abstract

Lake-effect snowstorms are an important source of severe winter weather over the Great Lakes region and are often triggered by the passage of synoptic-scale low pressure systems. In this paper, a climatology of lake-effect snowstorms over southern Ontario, Canada, for the period 1992–99 is developed. The distinguishing characteristics of the synoptic-scale environment associated with intense lake-effect snowstorms in the region are identified through the study of individual events and through composite analysis. In particular, it is found that a low pressure and a cold-temperature anomaly situated over Hudson Bay, north of the Great Lakes, is a favorable environment for the development of intense lake-effect snowstorms over southern Ontario. It is also found that the track of the low pressure system can have a significant impact on the development or lack thereof of lake-effect snowstorms over southern Ontario. It is found that the low pressure systems that trigger intense lake-effect snowstorms tend to have an anomalous northeastward track as compared to the eastward track of most low pressure systems that transit the region.

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G. W. K. Moore and Gerald Holdsworth

Abstract

In late May 2005, three climbers were immobilized at 5400 m on Mount Logan, Canada’s highest mountain, by the high-impact weather associated with an extratropical cyclone over the Gulf of Alaska. Rescue operations were hindered by the high winds, cold temperatures, and heavy snowfall associated with the storm. Ultimately, the climbers were rescued after the weather cleared. Just prior to the storm, two automated weather stations had been deployed on the mountain as part of a research program aimed at interpreting the climate signal contained in summit ice cores. These data provide a unique and hitherto unobtainable record of the high-elevation meteorological conditions associated with an intense extratropical cyclone. In this paper, data from these weather stations along with surface and sounding data from the nearby town of Yakutat, Alaska, satellite imagery, and the NCEP reanalysis are used to characterize the synoptic-scale conditions associated with this storm. Particular emphasis is placed on the water vapor transport associated with this storm.

The authors show that during this event, subtropical moisture was transported northward toward the Mount Logan region. The magnitude of this transport into the Gulf of Alaska was exceeded only 1% of the time during the months of May and June over the period 1948–2005. As a result, the magnitude of the precipitable water field in the Gulf of Alaska region attained values usually found in the Tropics. An atmospheric moisture budget analysis indicates that most of the moisture advected into the Mount Logan region was preexisting water vapor already in the subtropical atmosphere and was not water vapor evaporated from the surface during the evolution of the storm. Implications of this moisture source for understanding of the water isotopic climate signal in the Mount Logan ice cores will be discussed.

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