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George S. Benton
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George S. Benton
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George S. Benton

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George S. Benton

Abstract

With use of the speed of long waves of infinitesimal amplitude as the criterion for critical flow, general expressions are obtained for critical conditions in a fluid system of n layers, where velocity as well as density vary from layer to layer. It is shown that at critical flow, energy per unit volume in each layer, total energy transfer, and total momentum transfer are all minima. The multi-layered system is in this respect a simple extension of the one-fluid regime, since the fluid system cannot pass through critical flow in steady state over a horizontal surface without occurrence of a finite surface or internal hydraulic jump. These principles are illustrated by a detailed analysis of a two-layer system, and it is shown that momentum and energy considerations are insufficient to specify conditions below a standing hydraulic jump when all upstream parameters are known. The implications of this concept are discussed in connection with the changes a real two-fluid system will undergo when momentum and energy are abstracted by friction.

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V. Hsueh
,
George S. Benton
, and
G. Putland

Abstract

Observations of surface waves in a tilted rotating circular basin of paraboloidal bottom reveal quantitatively the limitations of the predictability of tides by linear inviscid analyses. Through nonlinear interactions of the oscillatory motions directly forced by the basic rotation ω, motions at a wide range of frequency are excited. These secondary oscillations are usually of insignificant amplitude. However, at resonant frequencies they are amplified and come to equilibrium with apparently the Reynolds strewn at sufficiently large amplitudes as to cause substantial distortions in the primary oscillation.

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George S. Benton
and
Arthur B. Kahn

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Data at 300 mb for January-February and July-August, 1949, are used to compute spectra of atmospheric turbulence as a function of wave number along various latitude circles. Power spectra are computed for the zonal and meridional wind, and cospectra for the meridional transfer of angular momentum, dry enthalpy, and kinetic energy. Total spectra are computed daily, and for each season the mean total spectrum is divided into two parts: the spectrum of the seasonal mean flow, and the mean seasonal spectrum of the perturbations. The general characteristics of the power and cospectra are discussed. It is shown, for example, that the spectrum of the mean seasonal flow dominates at low wave numbers, while the mean spectrum of the perturbations is more important at higher wave numbers. The day-to-day variation of the total spectra is also considered. It is found that for power spectra the specific deviation is quasi-constant at all wave numbers, latitudes, and seasons. A method is presented for refining the variance analysis by separating out the interaction variance between the mean flow and the perturbation field.

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George S. Benton
and
Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

The transfer of water in vapor form by the atmosphere is presented for the calendar year 1949. Monthly and seasonal patterns of moisture flow are evaluated, and it is shown that there is a close relationship between these patterns and the distribution of precipitation. The importance of eddy systems in effecting moisture transfer is examined, and the meridional flow of vapor over the North American sector is compared with the average for the Northern Hemisphere. Divergence fields of water-vapor transfer are used in conjunction with a mass-continuity equation for water to compute evapotranspiration over the North American continent. Hydrologic data verify these computations to a remarkable degree.

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George S. Benton
and
Robert T. Blackburn
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Interaction Between the Atmosphere and the Oceans

Report of the Joint Panel on Air-Sea Interaction

George S. Benton
,
Robert G. Fleagle
,
Dale F. Leipper
,
R. B. Montgomery
,
Norris Rakestraw
,
William S. Richardson
,
Herbert Riehl
, and
James Snodgrass
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