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Gerald C. Gill

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Gerald C. Gill

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Gerald C. Gill

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Gerald C. Gill

At weather stations outside of the United States meteorological balloons are usually inflated with hydrogen. At stations remote from large industrial centers it is usually cheaper to generate the hydrogen at the station than to ship it in cylinders from the industrial center. Probably the most common hydrogen generator for station use is of the high pressure chemical style where pressures in excess of 2000 p.s.i. are not uncommon. To reduce the number of serious accidents occurring through the use of these high pressure generators, a low pressure generator with a maximum pressure of 4 p.s.i. has been developed.

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Gerald C. Gill

There has been relatively little study of the fine structure of turbulent flow near the ground due, in no small part, to the scarcity of suitable instrumentation to measure and record the rapid fluctuations of the wind. The present paper describes a simple heated-thermocouple type of hot-wire anemometer that in a wind averaging 5 m sec−1 is capable of recording sinusoidal wind fluctuations of 10 per sec with an accuracy of better than 90 percent, and of 40 per sec with an accuracy of 50 percent.

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Gerald C. Gill and Paul L. Hexter

To bridge the growing communications gap between meteorologists and engineers, a provisional list of definitions of terms frequently used by both groups is presented. These definitions are divided into four categories: A) Basic terminology (definitions of terms such as sensor, transducer, instrument, and data acquisition system). B) Terms relating primarily to the sensor (definitions of terms such as time constant, distance constant, damping ratio, and hysteresis). C) Terms relating primarily to the instrument (definitions of terms such as sensitivity, resolution, error, accuracy, and linearity). D) Terms relating primarily to the measuring process (definitions and discussions of terms such as precision, reliability, and representativeness).

The authors hope this selected set of definitions will not only be of immediate use as a step towards a standard terminology but also will form the basis for a more comprehensive Glossary of Meteorological Instrumentation Terminology.

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Gerald C. Gill and Eugene W. Bierly

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The standard deviation of wind direction and the mean wind speed have been incorporated in to a system for controlling the release of radioactive gaseous wastes from the 200-ft stack of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant. The meteorological sensor used in the system is a Bendix-Friez Aerovane, located on top of a 100-ft meteorological tower near the stack. Data from the Aerovane are processed by a small analog computer whose outputs are displayed on the control board of the reactor control room and recorded on strip chart recorders. The display enables the reactor operator to know whether the stack is open to the atmosphere or whether the gases are being stored in containment tanks. Averaging times of the meteorological variables may be switched to 3, 6, 12 or 24 minute periods. The paper concludes with a discussion of several representative records from the computer and the Aerovane, pointing out some of the interesting features of this system.

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Eugene W. Bierly and Gerald C. Gill

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A technique for measuring atmospheric diffusion with a “floating grid” system is described. Tracer sampling is accomplished using one or two airplanes flying arcs of circles at selected radial distances from the release point and flying selected levels on each arc. The planes are guided by a ground based radar. The centerline of the “floating grid” sampling network is aligned in the direction toward which the mean wind is blowing and can change during an experiment. Instrumentation necessary for the dispensing, sampling and analysis of the tracer material is described as well as the associated meteorological instrumentation. A brief description of the analysis of data using the “floating grid” system is also presented.

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Gerald C. Gill, Eugene W. Bierly, and Jal N. Kerawalla

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Gerald C. Gill, Eugene W. Bierly, and Jal N. Kerawalla

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An inexpensive, reusable, cold propellant (no fire) rocket has been adapted so a continuous smoke stream is emitted from the instant of launching to an altitude of 1200 ft. The smoke column is photographed simultaneously at 10-sec intervals by two cameras located 2000 ft from the launch site and at right angles to each other. Results are presented in terms of north–south and east–west components of the wind speed at any desired altitude to 1200 ft. A brief cost analysis is presented as evidence that the rocket technique is quite inexpensive relative to other systems in use today.

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