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Gerald W. Grams

Since the early 1960s, the development of atmospheric probing instrumentation that incorporates lasers has led to a variety of techniques for observing the atmosphere. The number of laser atmospheric studies has steadily increased since the time in 1963 when Fiocco and Smullin at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported the first laser measurements of atmospheric properties—laser echoes from dust layers in the upper atmosphere. Since that time, tropospheric, stratospheric, and mesospheric dust concentrations, gaseous pollutant concentrations, cloud heights and thicknesses, and wind velocities are among the many characteristics of the atmosphere that have been observed quantitatively with laser probes.

This review will describe some of the laser-atmospheric interactions that have been exploited to measure specific atmospheric properties, the extent to which those concepts have been applied, and some views regarding future applications of laser probes for observing the atmosphere.

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Philip B. Russell and Gerald W. Grams


Several analytical models of the radiative effects of aerosol layers on global climate provide the common result that the critical value (ρc) of the ratio (ρ) of aerosol layer absorption to hemispheric backscattering is given by
where A is taken to be the albedo of the earth's surface, or of the present earth–atmosphere system. The models predict that introduction of a new aerosol layer with ρ > ρ c will cause a decrease in system albedo, and a layer with ρ < ρ c will cause an increase. In this paper we demonstrate this common result for &rho c and then employ recently published data on the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric surface layer soil particles to compute values of ρ. The resulting values (5 < ρ < 28) are quite large compared to previous estimates. Together with the above model result they indicate that increased generation of such airborne soil particles will tend to increase the input of solar energy to the earth–atmosphere system. This “heating” effect results, in part, from the relatively large mean particle sizes used in the computations. The effects of particle asphericity on the computed ρ values are discussed.
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Giorgio Fiocco, Gerald Grams, and Alberto Mugnai


A previous analysis (Fiocco et al., 1975) of the energetic equilibrium of small particles in the earth's upper atmosphere is extended to the 0–60 km region. The analysis is based on establishing a balance among the energy absorbed from solar and planetary radiation fields, the energy radiated by the particles, and the sensible heat exchanged through collisions with the ambient gas. The planetary radiation field is calculated as a function of altitude and includes radiation from the surface as well as emission and absorption by the infrared bands of CO2, O3, and H2O The various energy term change as a function of radius and altitude of the particles, season, time of day and the earth's albedo. Thus aerosols may beat or cool the atmosphere and their temperature may. differ from the ambient gas temperature. Maximum and average values for the heating rates induced by the particles into the ambient gas are computed for summer and winter 45°N conditions.

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