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  • Author or Editor: Germán Poveda x
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Germán Poveda
and
Oscar J. Mesa

Abstract

The hydroclimatology of tropical South America is strongly coupled to low-frequency large-scale oceanicand atmospheric phenomena occurring over the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans. In particular, El Niño–SouthernOscillation (ENSO) affects climatic and hydrologic conditions on timescales ranging from seasons to decades.With some regional differences in timing and amplitude, tropical South America exhibits negative rainfall andstreamflow anomalies in association with the low–warm phase of the Southern Oscillation (El Niño), and positiveanomalies with the high–cold phase. Such dependence is illustrated in the hydroclimatology of Colombia throughseveral empirical analyses: correlation, empirical orthogonal functions, principal component, and spectral analysis, and discussion of the major physical mechanisms. Observations show that ENSO’s effect on river dischargesoccurs progressively later for rivers toward the east in Colombia and northern South America. Also, the impactsof La Niña are more pronounced than those of El Niño. Evidence is also presented to show that processes arisingfrom land–atmosphere interactions in tropical South America affect sea surface temperatures in the Caribbeanand the north tropical Atlantic. A hypothesis is formulated to explain these feedback mechanisms throughperturbations in precipitation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration over the continent. To begin with, the occurrence of both phases of ENSO affects all those fields. The proposed mechanisms would constitute the “land–atmosphere” bridge connecting Pacific and Atlantic SST anomalies.

Full access
Johanna Yepes
,
Germán Poveda
,
John F. Mejía
,
Leonardo Moreno
, and
Carolina Rueda

Abstract

The ChocoJet Experiment (CHOCO-JEX) is an interinstitutional research program developed by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, the General Maritime Directorate of the Ministry of National Defense of Colombia, the Colombian Air Force, and the Desert Research Institute. The main goal of CHOCO-JEX is to characterize the vertical structure of the low-level Chocó jet (ChocoJet) through observations and modeling. Thus, four 7-day intensive observation periods (IOPs) took place during different seasons in 2016, two over land and two over the far eastern Pacific off the coast of Colombia, including the deployment of upper-air soundings four times per day to monitor the predominant diurnal cycle and the synoptic and seasonal variability. Preliminary results show deeper westerly moisture flow and a stronger diurnal cycle over land than over ocean. IOP4 provides the first observational evidence of the southwesterly ChocoJet with mean winds of 5 m s–1. Diurnal cycles of zonal wind are coherent with mountain–valley and sea–land breezes at low levels and the easterly flow is predominant at midlevels. Potential temperature anomalies appear to be related to gravity waves that modulate the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the region.

Full access
Johanna Yepes
,
John F. Mejía
,
Brian Mapes
, and
Germán Poveda

ABSTRACT

The diurnal cycle of precipitation and thermodynamic profiles over western Colombia are examined in new GPM satellite rainfall products, first-ever research balloon launches during 2016 over both sea and land, and numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. This paper evaluates the Mapes et al. mechanism for midnight–early morning coastal convection that propagates offshore: reduction of inhibition in the crests of lower-tropospheric internal waves. Shipborne balloon launches confirm the evening development of such inhibition by a warm overhang in saturation moist static energy (SMSE) near 700–800 hPa. This feature relaxes overnight, consistent with the disinhibition hypothesis for early morning rains. Over the coastal plain, soundings also show late afternoon increases in near-surface MSE large enough to predominate over the overhang’s inhibition effect, driving a second peak in the rainfall diurnal cycle. Parameterized convection simulations fail to simulate the observed coastal rainfall. Still, during a November 2016 wet spell, a cloud-permitting one-way nested 4 km simulation performs better, simulating morning coastal rainfall. In that simulation, however, early morning cooling in the 700–800 hPa layer appears mainly as a standing signal resembling the local radiative effect rather than as a propagating wave. We consider the additional hypothesis that the offshore propagation of that morning convection could involve advection or wind shear effects on organized convective systems. Strong easterlies at mountaintop level were indeed simulated, but that is one of the model’s strongest biases, so the mechanisms of the model’s partial success in simulating diurnal rainfall remain ambiguous.

Free access
Germán Poveda
,
Oscar J. Mesa
,
Luis F. Salazar
,
Paola A. Arias
,
Hernán A. Moreno
,
Sara C. Vieira
,
Paula A. Agudelo
,
Vladimir G. Toro
, and
J. Felipe Alvarez

Abstract

Using hourly records from 51 rain gauges, spanning between 22 and 28 yr, the authors study the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the tropical Andes of Colombia. Analyses are developed for the seasonal march of the diurnal cycle and its interannual variability during the two phases of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Also, the diurnal cycle is analyzed at intra-annual time scales, associated with the westerly and easterly phases of the Madden–Julian oscillation, as well as higher-frequency variability (<10 days), mainly associated with tropical easterly wave activity during ENSO contrasting years. Five major general patterns are identified: (i) precipitation exhibits clear-cut diurnal (24 h) and semidiurnal (12 h) cycles; (ii) the minimum of daily precipitation is found during the morning hours (0900–1100 LST) regardless of season or location; (iii) a predominant afternoon peak is found over northeastern and western Colombia; (iv) over the western flank of the central Andes, precipitation maxima occur either near midnight, or during the afternoon, or both; and (v) a maximum of precipitation prevails near midnight amongst stations located on the eastern flank of the central Cordillera. The timing of diurnal maxima is highly variable in space for a fixed time, although a few coherent regions are found in small groups of rain gauges within the Cauca and Magdalena River valleys. Overall, the identified strong seasonal variability in the timing of rainfall maxima appears to exhibit no relationship with elevation on the Andes. The effects of both phases of ENSO are highly consistent spatially, as the amplitude of hourly and daily precipitation diminishes (increases) during El Niño (La Niña), but the phase remains unaltered for the entire dataset. We also found a generalized increase (decrease) in hourly and daily rainfall rates during the westerly (easterly) phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation, and a diminished (increased) high-frequency activity in July–October and February–April during El Niño (La Niña) years, associated, among others, with lower (higher) tropical easterly wave (4–6 day) activity over the Caribbean.

Full access
Graeme Stephens
,
Jan Polcher
,
Xubin Zeng
,
Peter van Oevelen
,
Germán Poveda
,
Michael Bosilovich
,
Myoung-Hwan Ahn
,
Gianpaolo Balsamo
,
Qingyun Duan
,
Gabriele Hegerl
,
Christian Jakob
,
Benjamin Lamptey
,
Ruby Leung
,
Maria Piles
,
Zhongbo Su
,
Paul Dirmeyer
,
Kirsten L. Findell
,
Anne Verhoef
,
Michael Ek
,
Tristan L’Ecuyer
,
Rémy Roca
,
Ali Nazemi
,
Francina Dominguez
,
Daniel Klocke
, and
Sandrine Bony

Abstract

The Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) project was created more than 30 years ago within the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). The aim of this initiative was to address major gaps in our understanding of Earth’s energy and water cycles given a lack of information about the basic fluxes and associated reservoirs of these cycles. GEWEX sought to acquire and set standards for climatological data on variables essential for quantifying water and energy fluxes and for closing budgets at the regional and global scales. In so doing, GEWEX activities led to a greatly improved understanding of processes and our ability to predict them. Such understanding was viewed then, as it remains today, essential for advancing weather and climate prediction from global to regional scales. GEWEX has also demonstrated over time the importance of a wider engagement of different communities and the necessity of international collaboration for making progress on understanding and on the monitoring of the changes in the energy and water cycles under ever increasing human pressures. This paper reflects on the first 30 years of evolution and progress that has occurred within GEWEX. This evolution is presented in terms of three main phases of activity. Progress toward the main goals of GEWEX is highlighted by calling out a few achievements from each phase. A vision of the path forward for the coming decade, including the goals of GEWEX for the future, are also described.

Open access
Francina Dominguez
,
Roy Rasmussen
,
Changhai Liu
,
Kyoko Ikeda
,
Andreas Prein
,
Adam Varble
,
Paola A. Arias
,
Julio Bacmeister
,
Maria Laura Bettolli
,
Patrick Callaghan
,
Leila M. V. Carvalho
,
Christopher L. Castro
,
Fei Chen
,
Divyansh Chug
,
Kwok Pan (Sun) Chun
,
Aiguo Dai
,
Luminita Danaila
,
Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha
,
Ernani de Lima Nascimento
,
Erin Dougherty
,
Jimy Dudhia
,
Trude Eidhammer
,
Zhe Feng
,
Lluís Fita
,
Rong Fu
,
Julian Giles
,
Harriet Gilmour
,
Kate Halladay
,
Yongjie Huang
,
Angela Maylee Iza Wong
,
Miguel Ángel Lagos-Zúñiga
,
Charles Jones
,
Jorge Llamocca
,
Marta Llopart
,
J. Alejandro Martinez
,
J. Carlos Martinez
,
Justin R. Minder
,
Monica Morrison
,
Zachary L. Moon
,
Ye Mu
,
Richard B. Neale
,
Kelly M. Núñez Ocasio
,
Sujan Pal
,
Erin Potter
,
German Poveda
,
Franciano Puhales
,
Kristen L. Rasmussen
,
Amanda Rehbein
,
Rosimar Rios-Berrios
,
Christoforus Bayu Risanto
,
Alan Rosales
,
Lucia Scaff
,
Anton Seimon
,
Marcelo Somos-Valenzuela
,
Yang Tian
,
Peter Van Oevelen
,
Daniel Veloso-Aguila
,
Lulin Xue
, and
Timothy Schneider
Open access