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Gilbert B. Clark

Abstract

Five named tropical cyclones and one subtropical cyclone were tracked during 1982 in the Atlantic–Caribbean–Gulf of Mexico region. There were no landfalling hurricanes.

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Lixion A. Avila
and
Gilbert B. Clark

Abstract

.The 1988 season produced 62 tropical waves, 19 tropical depressions and 12 tropical storms, 5 of which became hurricanes. Eighty-three percent of the tropical storms developed from African waves. A comparison with the past 21 years is included.

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Miles B. Lawrence
and
Gilbert B. Clark

Abstract

A summary of the 1984 Atlantic hurricane season is given. Twelve tropical cyclones and one subtropical cyclone were tracked in the North Atlantic–Caribbean–Gulf of Mexico region. Diana was a landfalling hurricane on the North Carolina coast and Lili was a rare December hurricane.

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Neil L. Frank
and
Gilbert Clark

Abstract

The 1978 hurricane season produced 98 "tropical systems", of which 33 acquired the closed circulation of a depression. Over half of these 65 originated over the African Continent. African seedlings initiated 6 of the 11 named Atlantic storms, and 13 of the 18 east Pacific storms.

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Neil L. Frank
and
Gilbert Clark

Abstract

The 1977 hurricane season produced 105 “tropical systems”, of which 19 acquired the closed circulation of a depression. Over half of these (69) originated over the African Continent. African seedlings initiated four of the six named Atlantic storms, and all but one of the eight east Pacific storms.

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Neil L. Frank
and
Gilbert Clark

Abstract

The 1979 hurricane season produced 85 “tropical system” of which 27 acquired the closed circulation of a depression 52 of these originated over the African Continent. African seedlings initiated 7 of the 8 named Atlantic storm and 7 of the 10 East Pacific storms.

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Neil L. Frank
and
Gilbert Clark

Abstract

The 1976 hurricane mason produced 111 “tropical systems”, of which 23 acquired the closed circulation of a depression. Over half of these (68) originated over the African Continent. These are the most African systems observed since our annual summary began in 1968. African seedlings initiated four of the eight named Atlantic storms, and all but one of the fourteen East Pacific storms.

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David J. Nicosia
,
Ernest J. Ostuno
,
Nathaniel Winstead
,
Gabriel Klavun
,
Charles Patterson
,
Craig Gilbert
,
George Bryan
,
John H. E. Clark
, and
J. M. Fritsch

Abstract

An analysis of a flash flood caused by a lake-enhanced rainband is presented. The flood took place near Erie, Pennsylvania, on 17 September 1996. It was found that the flood resulted from a complex interplay of several scales of forcing that converged over the Erie region. In particular, the flood occurred during a period when 1) a lake-enhanced convective rainband pivoted over the city of Erie with the pivot point remaining quasi-stationary for about 5 h; 2) a deep, surface-based no-shear layer, favorable for the development of strong lake-induced precipitation bands, passed over the eastern portion of Lake Erie; 3) the direction of flow in the no-shear layer shifted from shore parallel to onshore at an angle that maximized frictional convergence; 4) an upper-level short-wave trough contributed to low-level convergence, lifting, and regional destabilization; and 5) a strong land–lake diurnal temperature difference produced a lake-scale disturbance that locally enhanced the low-level convergence.

Analysis of the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler radar data from Buffalo, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio, revealed that most of the radar-derived precipitation estimates for the region were overdone except for the region affected by the quasi-stationary rainband, which was underestimated. Reconstruction of the conditions in the vicinity of the band indicate that cloud bases were considerably lower and equivalent potential temperatures higher than for the areas of precipitation farther east over northwestern Pennsylvania and southwestern New York State. It is postulated that, due to the long distance from the radar sites to the Erie area, the radar was unable to observe large amounts of cloud condensate produced by warm-rain processes below 4 km. Estimates of precipitation rates from a simple cloud model support this interpretation.

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