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  • Author or Editor: Giorgio Dall’Olmo x
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Wayne H. Slade, Emmanuel Boss, Giorgio Dall’Olmo, M. Rois Langner, James Loftin, Michael J. Behrenfeld, Collin Roesler, and Toby K. Westberry

Abstract

Optical sensors have distinct advantages when used in ocean observatories, autonomous platforms, and on vessels of opportunity, because of their high-frequency measurements, low power consumption, and the numerous established relationships between optical measurements and biogeochemical variables. However, the issues of biofouling and instrument stability over time remain complicating factors when optical instruments are used over periods longer than several days. Here, a method for obtaining calibration-independent measurements of spectral particle absorption and attenuation is presented. Flow-through optical instrumentation is routinely diverted through a large–surface area 0.2-μm cartridge filter, allowing for the calculation of particle optical properties by differencing temporally adjacent filtered and whole water samples. This approach yields measurements that are independent of drift in instrument calibration. The method has advantages not only for coastally moored deployments, but also for applications in optically clear waters where uncertainties in instrument calibration can be a significant part of the signal measured. The differencing technique is demonstrated using WET Labs (Philomath, Oregon) ac-9 and ac-s multi- and hyperspectral absorption and attenuation meters. For the ac-s sensor, a correction scheme is discussed that utilizes the spectral shape of water absorption in the near-infrared to improve the accuracy of temperature and scattering-corrected spectra. Flow-through particulate absorption measurements are compared with discrete filter-pad measurements and are found to agree well (R 2 = 0.77; rmse = 0.0174 m−1).

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Emanuele Organelli, Hervé Claustre, Annick Bricaud, Catherine Schmechtig, Antoine Poteau, Xiaogang Xing, Louis Prieur, Fabrizio D’Ortenzio, Giorgio Dall’Olmo, and Vincenzo Vellucci

Abstract

An array of Bio-Argo floats equipped with radiometric sensors has been recently deployed in various open ocean areas representative of the diversity of trophic and bio-optical conditions prevailing in the so-called case 1 waters. Around solar noon and almost every day, each float acquires 0–250-m vertical profiles of photosynthetically available radiation and downward irradiance at three wavelengths (380, 412, and 490 nm). Up until now, more than 6500 profiles for each radiometric channel have been acquired. As these radiometric data are collected out of an operator’s control and regardless of meteorological conditions, specific and automatic data processing protocols have to be developed. This paper presents a data quality-control procedure aimed at verifying profile shapes and providing near-real-time data distribution. This procedure is specifically developed to 1) identify main issues of measurements (i.e., dark signal, atmospheric clouds, spikes, and wave-focusing occurrences) and 2) validate the final data with a hierarchy of tests to ensure a scientific utilization. The procedure, adapted to each of the four radiometric channels, is designed to flag each profile in a way compliant with the data management procedure used by the Argo program. Main perturbations in the light field are identified by the new protocols with good performances over the whole dataset. This highlights its potential applicability at the global scale. Finally, the comparison with modeled surface irradiances allows for assessing the accuracy of quality-controlled measured irradiance values and identifying any possible evolution over the float lifetime due to biofouling and instrumental drift.

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