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David R. Easterling, Grant Goodge, Matthew J. Menne, Claude N. Williams Jr., and David Levinson

Abstract

Temperature time series for stations in western North Carolina are used to evaluate the potential for an urban signal in the local temperature trend, and to compare a homogeneous temperature record from a mountain-top station to two versions of the lower-tropospheric, satellite-derived temperatures from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU). Results regarding the urban signal are in agreement with the conclusion from previous investigations that after a location is urbanized, the local temperature trend is consistent with trends derived from surrounding, more rural stations. With respect to the mountain top and lower-tropospheric temperature comparison, the magnitudes of the two MSU-derived trends for the western North Carolina area are closer to the average annual minimum temperature trend than to the annual average maximum temperature trend.

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Howard J. Diamond, Thomas R. Karl, Michael A. Palecki, C. Bruce Baker, Jesse E. Bell, Ronald D. Leeper, David R. Easterling, Jay H. Lawrimore, Tilden P. Meyers, Michael R. Helfert, Grant Goodge, and Peter W. Thorne

The year 2012 marks a decade of observations undertaken by the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) under the auspices of NOAA's National Climatic Data Center and Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division. The network consists of 114 sites across the conterminous 48 states, with additional sites in Alaska and Hawaii. Stations are installed in open (where possible), rural sites very likely to have stable land-cover/use conditions for several decades to come. At each site a suite of meteorological parameters are monitored, including triple redundancy for the primary air temperature and precipitation variables and for soil moisture/temperature. Instrumentation is regularly calibrated to National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) standards and maintained by a staff of expert engineers. This attention to detail in USCRN is intended to ensure the creation of an unimpeachable record of changes in surface climate over the United States for decades to come. Data are made available without restriction for all public, private, and government use. This article describes the rationale for the USCRN, its implementation, and some of the highlights of the first decade of operations. One critical use of these observations is as an independent data source to verify the existing U.S. temperature record derived from networks corrected for nonhomogenous histories. Future directions for the network are also discussed, including the applicability of USCRN approaches for networks monitoring climate at scales from regional to global. Constructive feedback from end users will allow for continued improvement of USCRN in the future and ensure that it continues to meet stakeholder requirements for precise climate measurements.

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