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  • Author or Editor: Gwenore F. Pokrifka x
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Jerry Y. Harrington and Gwenore F. Pokrifka

Abstract

Measurements show that after facets form on frozen water droplets, those facets grow laterally across the crystal surface leading to an increase in volume and surface area with only a small increase in maximum dimension. This lateral growth of the facets is distinctly different from that predicted by the capacitance model and by the theory of faceted growth. In this paper we develop two approximate theories of lateral growth, one that is empirical and one that uses explicit growth mechanisms. We show that both theories can reproduce the overall features of lateral growth on a frozen, supercooled water droplet. Both theories predict that the area-average deposition coefficient should decrease in time as the particle grows, and this result may help explain the divergence of some prior measurements of the deposition coefficient. The theories may also explain the approximately constant mass growth rates that have recently been found in some measurements. We also show that the empirical theory can reproduce the lateral growth that occurs when a previously sublimated crystal is regrown, as may happen during the recycling of crystals in cold clouds.

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Gwenore F. Pokrifka, Alfred M. Moyle, Lavender Elle Hanson, and Jerry Y. Harrington

Abstract

There are few measurements of the vapor growth of small ice crystals at temperatures below −30°C. Presented here are mass-growth measurements of heterogeneously and homogeneously frozen ice particles grown within an electrodynamic levitation diffusion chamber at temperatures between −44° and −30°C and supersaturations s i between 3% and 29%. These growth data are analyzed with two methods devised to estimate the deposition coefficient α without the direct use of s i. Measurements of s i are typically uncertain, which has called past estimates of α into question. We find that the deposition coefficient ranges from 0.002 to unity and is scattered with temperature, as shown in prior measurements. The data collectively also show a relationship between α and s i, with α rising (falling) with increasing s i for homogeneously (heterogeneously) frozen ice. Analysis of the normalized mass growth rates reveals that heterogeneously frozen crystals grow near the maximum rate at low s i, but show increasingly inhibited (low α) growth at high s i. Additionally, 7 of the 17 homogeneously frozen crystals cannot be modeled with faceted growth theory or constant α. These cases require the growth mode to transition from efficient to inefficient in time, leading to a large decline in α. Such transitions may be, in part, responsible for the inconsistency in prior measurements of α.

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