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H. E. LANDSBERG

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H. E. LANDSBERG

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H. E. Landsberg
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H. E. Landsberg
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H. E. Landsberg

Drought is an inevitable part of climate, even in regions of usually ample rainfall. Because of the effects of drought on food supply, long time series of occurrence exist in many parts of the world. Incidence is dominated by the long wave patterns and by weakening of the intertropical convergence zone. There are indistinct regularities, but once established, temporal persistence over several months is marked. There is little tendency for interannual persistence. The consequences of drought for soil erosion, crop production, water supplies, and hydroelectric power generation call for great managerial skills. Drought prediction would help, but the state of the art is highly imperfect. Mismanagement of land resources in semi-arid regions can lead to desert encroachment.

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H. E. Landsberg

Abstracts are an important link in scientific communications. They should summarize succinctly the important findings of papers. Authors are enjoined to write them with meticulous care. Editors should insist that they reflect the conclusions of the contributions. This will help in producing abstract journals and in reducing time lag between primary and secondary publication.

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H. E. LANDSBERG and B. RATNER

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R. P. Harnack and H. E. Landsberg

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The release of isolated summer showers in the Washington D.C. area, as related to the urban heat island, was studied for nine propitious synoptic situations in 1968, 1972 and 1973. Parcel theory, using urban surface temperature and upper air soundings, permitted comparison between predicted and observed cloud behavior. In all cases the urban thermal effect seemed to be the likely trigger force for shower development. Vertical wind data and cloud energetics permitted an estimate of rainfall positioning in the metropolitan area. In eight of the nine cases, this yielded the correct placing of the urban-induced showers. The study further documents this type of inadvertent rainfall augmentation. Three cases are presented here.

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H. E. LANDSBERG, J. M. MITCHELL JR., and H. L. CRUTCHER

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Power spectrum techniques are applied to series of daily, weekly, and monthly average temperature and precipitation values, recorded since 1870 at the Woodstock Climatological Benchmark Station in Maryland, in order to gain a reasonable interpretation of the extent and frequency distribution of periodic variations in these data. Analysis procedures are outlined, and the results presented, interpreted, and collated with the results of earlier literature in some detail.

Apparent short-period variations are found whose periods lie near 3 days, between 5 and 7 days, and between about 15 and 25 days; various of them however, are absent from some portions of the data series and also differ somewhat in character with the season of the year.

Significant long-period variations are more prevalent in the temperature series than in the precipitation series. Spectral peaks in temperature, of periods near 2 years and greater than 50 years, both achieve high levels of statistical significance. The 11-year sunspot cycle, and to some extent its second harmonic as well, is suggested in the temperature data. The double (22-year) sunspot cycle and the longer Brückner cycle, however, are almost totally absent. The basis of Abbot's statistical long-range prediction scheme, which utilizes numerous higher harmonics of the double sunspot cycle, is tested against the Woodstock data, and is found in this caw to lack measurable skill above chance.

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H. E. LANDSBERG, J. M. MITCHELL JR., and H. L. CRUTCHER

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