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H. J. aufm Kampe

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H. J. aufm Kampe

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H. J. aufm Kampe

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Koschmieder's formula is verified by experimental data obtained on Mt. Washington and is used to determine visibility in clouds from measurements of the scattering coefficient. Visibility in clouds varies from approximately ten meters in large cumulus clouds to several hundred meters in stratus-like clouds. Knowing the visibility, it is possible to calculate the liquid water content by applying the Trabert formula if, in addition, the drop-size is known. The droplets are photomicrographed by the Hagemann and Diem method. The average droplet radius is about 4µ in fair weather cumulus and stratocumulus, about 7µ in stratus-like clouds and about 10µ in cumulus congestus. The average water content in large cumulus clouds is approximately 2.5 g/m3 in fair weather cumulus 0.5 g/m3 and in stratus 0.2 g/m3.

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H. J. aufm Kampe
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H. K. Weickmann

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H. J. aufm Kampe
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H. K. Weickmann

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H. J. aufm Kampe
and
H. K. Weickmann

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H. K. Weickmann
and
H. J. aufm Kampe

Abstract

Measurements of droplet size and visibility have been made at different levels above the base of all types of cumulus clouds. The evaluation of these data permits calculations of corresponding values of water content and droplet concentration. It has been found that the droplet spectrum in fair-weather cumulus is narrow, whereas the spectra in cumulus congestus and cumulonimbus are very broad with droplet radii as large as 100µ. The droplet concentration decreases with height above base, suggesting the action of an efficient process of coalescence. At a height of about 2000 m above base, minimum values of visibility have been found. It appears that coalescence of cloud droplets is an important process in the formation of droplet spectra.

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H. K. Weickmann
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H. J. aufm Kampe

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H. J. aufm Kampe
and
H. K. Weickmann

Abstract

With use of cloud data collected in all types of cumulus clouds, it is shown that the constant in the Trabert equation is not actually a constant but varies with the character of the droplet spectrum. Trabert's formula consequently is not suitable, in general, for the determination of liquid-water content from measurements of visibility and droplet size. It is shown how the water content can be determined from these measurements, provided that the whole droplet spectrum and not just an average droplet size is known.

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H. J. aufm Kampe
and
H. K. Weickmann

Abstract

No Abstract Available

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