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H. K. Saylor

Abstract

An attempt is made to shed light on the mid-tropospheric and low-level developments during the period of the east coast storm of March 1962 by using of synoptic analysis and the operational forecasts of the National Meteorological Center.

It is shown that the greater part of the changes at 500 mb were accounted for by the equivalent barotropic theory. Important baroclinic effects which were a consequence of the strong high-level jet stream and strong low-level cold advection contributed to the 500-mb development.

The low-level cyclogenesis occurred in qualitative agreement with the theories of Sutcliffe and Petterssen.

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E. B. FAWCETT and H. K. SAYLOR

Abstract

The distribution of weather with 21 cyclones which formed in the lee of the Colorado Rockies during the winter and spring of 1959 through 1963 is studied. The relation of the probability and form of precipitation and severe weather to circulation patterns (and their derivatives) at the surface and 500 mb. is shown from 12 hr. before cyclogenesis to 48 hr. after cyclogenesis. It is concluded that the weather models derived by this procedure are a useful starting point for weather forecasting, given predictions of 500-mb. flow and vorticity, vertical velocity, and surface pressure pattern.

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James H. Saylor, Joseph C. K. Huang, and Robert O. Reid

Abstract

Current velocities and water temperatures were observed in southern Lake Michigan with an array of AMF vector-averaging current meters during late spring, summer and fall 1976. Analyses of the recorded current data have revealed that persistent oscillations of nearly 4 days in period were at least as energetic as inertial oscillations in the kinetic energy spectra and current hodographs. The 4-day oscillations were present at all stations, including a very clear signal at stations near the center of the lake basin. This lake-wide oscillation was present during both stratified and unstratified seasons and current vectors rotated cyclonically near the center of the lake and anticyclonically elsewhere. The observed rotational oscillations closely fit the characteristics of barotropic second-class motions of a basin with variable depth first described by Lamb (1932). While such topographic vortex modes are of the same class as low-frequency shelf waves, their kinematic properties and natural period are governed by the lake shape as well as the bathymetry. Moreover, the gravest mode is unique among these waves in having nonzero velocity at the lake center. The present observations give clear evidence for the existence of the gravest mode of such oscillations in southern Lake Michigan.

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