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Arthur Y. Hou, Hans R. Schneider, and Malcolm K. W. Ko

Abstract

The observed zonally averaged column ozone shows a maximum at 90°N during the northern winter and spring and at 60°S throughout the southern winter and spring. This asymmetry is explained in the context of a zonally averaged model with coupled radiation, dynamics, and chemistry, together with consistently parameterized planetary wave driving and wave transport. It is shown that in the presence of weak wave driving, the penetration of the tropospheric circulation into the lower stratosphere and the characteristics of ozone chemistry are such that they produce a column ozone maximum at subpolar latitudes. The effect of increased wave driving is to intensify the residual circulation and extend it farther poleward, resulting in an ozone maximum at the pole. The role of the mesospheric drag is to further enhance these column ozone maxima. Model calculations show that the positions of the observed column ozone maxima are consistent with intensities of wave driving in the two hemispheres derived from data.

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Hans R. Schneider, Malcolm K. W. Ko, Nien Dak Sze, Guang-Yu Shi, and Wei-Chyung Wang

Abstract

The effect of eddy diffusion in an interactive two-dimensional model of the stratosphere is reexamined. The model consists of a primitive equation dynamics module, a simplified HOx ozone model and a full radiative transfer scheme. The diabatic/residual circulation in the model stratosphere is maintained by the following processes: 1) nonlocal forcing resulting from dissipation in the parameterized model troposphere and frictional drag at mesospheric levels, 2) mechanical damping within the stratosphere itself, and 3) potential vorticity flux due to large scale waves. The net effect of each process is discussed in terms of the efficiency of the induced circulation in transporting ozone from the equatorial lower stratosphere to high latitude regions. The same eddy diffusion coefficients are used to parameterize the flux of quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity and diffusion in the tracer transport equation. It is shown that the ozone distributions generated with the interactive two-dimensional model are very sensitive to the choice of values for the friction and the eddy diffusion coefficients. The strength of the circulation increases with the mechanical damping and Kyy. At the same time, larger diffusion in the tracer transport equation reduces the equator to pole transport (Holton 1986). Depending on the amount of friction assumed in the stratosphere, increasing eddy diffusion can lead to an increase as well as a decrease in the net transport. It is shown that reasonable latitudinal gradients of ozone can be obtained by using small values for the mechanical damping [≈1/(100 days)] and Kyy (order 104 m2 s−1) for the mid- and high-latitude stratosphere.

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