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Harry Moses and Frank C. Kulhanek

Abstract

This paper describes a data processing system for recording automatically on paper punch tape and a teletypewriter 29 different meteorological variables measured at the Argonne National Laboratory.

The meteorological sensors are coupled to the data system either directly or through analog-to-digital converters attached to the recorders. Average values of the meteorological variables over periods of 2, 10, or 60 min are obtained by modified ball and disc integrators and pulse accumulators. Other characteristics of the data processing system and an enumeration of difficulties encountered and their solutions are discussed.

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John E. Pearson and Harry Moses

Abstract

Studies of concentrations of radon-222 in the atmosphere have been made from the surface of the earth to 16 meters elevation for eight periods of approximately 24 hours each. These studies provide over 650 individual determinations of radon concentration measured during a wide variety of meteorological conditions, from clear days with high radiation and relatively weak winds to cloudy days of low radiation and relatively high winds. Information presented indicates general features of radon concentration: 1) highest concentrations near the soil, the source, 2) maximum concentrations at night with the maximum near the soil occurring about 3 hours before the maximum at 16 meters, 3) minimum values at all levels near midday, 4) almost constant concentration with elevation, indicating good mixing during morning hours, and 5) the increase of concentration at ground level ahead of those aloft with the approach of evening.

Average 24-hour exposure at human breathing level, between 1 and 4 meters, varies between 0.259 and 0.301 picocuries per liter at the Argonne National Laboratory site.

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Harry Moses and Hugh G. Daubek

Towers distort the wind flow and thereby may produce errors in wind speed and direction measurements obtained by anemometers mounted on them. To study this effect, a comparison was made of 5000 hourly wind observations obtained from each of two Aerovanes operating simultaneously. One was mounted on a lattice-type tower and the other was mounted on a utility pole free from the tower wind-shadow effect. Both instruments were located at the meteorological field site of the Argonne National Laboratory. The results show that there was a substantial reduction in the wind speed indicated by the tower-mounted anemometer when the wind passed through the tower before being measured. For some wind directions, the tower-mounted anemometer gave speed readings appreciably higher than those of the reference anemometer. Wind-direction measurements were also affected. The data indicate that for precise work the tower wind-shadow effect must be considered.

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Harry Moses, W. C. Ashby, and Mary A. Bogner

Abstract

A study was made of the diurnal and seasonal variations of the vertical dewpoint gradient based on measurements taken at 1.2, 9.4 and 131 ft above ground at the Argonne National Laboratory during the period 1 December 1960 through 30 November 1965. The results of this study are used to assess the effects of the dewpoint temperature inversion on vegetative growth, dew formation and corrosion.

Case studies employing time series presentations are used to relate the magnitude and direction of the dewpoint gradient with other meteorological variables such as air and soil temperature, pressure, solar radiation, net radiation flux, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and stability. These analyses illustrate the processes operating to influence the magnitude and direction of moisture flux in the lower atmospheric layers.

Joint frequency distributions are presented relating the vertical dewpoint temperature gradient with each of the variables—air temperature between 144 and 5.5 feet, relative humidity, net radiation flux and wind speed. Also, a multivariate study is presented showing the relations among the occurrence frequency of dewpoint inversion, wind speed, relative humidity and net radiation flux. From this study, it is possible to determine the relation between the occurrence frequency of the dewpoint inversion and any one of the above variables with the other two held constant. A similar study is presented with the air temperature difference between 144 and 5.5 ft replacing net radiation flux as one of the variables.

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Edward Ryznar, Dennis G. Baker, and Harry Moses

Twenty-five meteorological stations are in operation inland from two nuclear power plants located on the Lake Michigan shoreline in southwestern lower Michigan. Their purpose is to provide data to enable meteorological effects of mechanical-draft cooling towers at the Palisades Nuclear Plant and a once-through cooling system at the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant to be evaluated. Temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation are measured at all stations, total solar radiation and wind velocity at four, and visibility at three. The stations, equipment, and calibration methods are described, and examples of types of meteorological analyses are presented.

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Horace R. Byers, Harry Moses, and Patrick J. Harney

Abstract

A technique for measuring the temperature of rain at the ground and the methods for calibrating the equipment used for this purpose are described in this report. A preliminary analysis of the data indicates that significant differences between the rain and ambient air temperatures usually occur in the first portion of the thunderstorm rain period and that the differences in temperature between the ambient air and the rain falling from the latter portion of the storm are small.

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