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Seung-Bu Park, Jong-Jin Baik, and Young-Hee Ryu

Abstract

Thermal effects on scalar dispersion in and above a cubical building array are numerically investigated using the parallelized large-eddy simulation model (PALM). Two cases (no heating and bottom heating) are simulated, and scalar dispersion patterns in the two cases are compared. In the no-heating case, scalar ejections in the low-speed flow structures play an important role in transporting scalar upward above the building array. In the bottom-heating case, streamwise elongated and isolated scalar ejections appear below upper low-speed and upper high-speed regions above the building array. In both cases, bottom-emitted scalar flux is balanced by streamwise scalar advection and vertical turbulent scalar flux at the rooftop height. The vertical turbulent scalar flux at the rooftop height is mainly composed of scalar ejections and scalar sweeps that are related to low- and high-speed flow structures, respectively. Furthermore, the low- and high-speed flow structures at the rooftop height induce spanwise converging and spanwise diverging flow in the building array in both the no-heating and bottom-heating cases. Thus, the mean scalar concentration in the building array is high below the low-speed flow structures (above the building array) in both cases. Dominant scalar dispersion patterns in the building array are found to be spanwise scalar transport events that are composed of negative scalar concentration perturbation and spanwise flow therein. In the bottom-heating case, a large-scale secondary circular flow develops, causing stronger spanwise scalar dispersion patterns in the building array.

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Bo-Joung Park, Yeon-Hee Kim, Seung-Ki Min, and Eun-Pa Lim

Abstract

Observed long-term variations in summer season timing and length in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) continents and their subregions were analyzed using temperature-based indices. The climatological mean showed coastal–inland contrast; summer starts and ends earlier inland than in coastal areas because of differences in heat capacity. Observations for the past 60 years (1953–2012) show lengthening of the summer season with earlier summer onset and delayed summer withdrawal across the NH. The summer onset advance contributed more to the observed increase in summer season length in many regions than the delay of summer withdrawal. To understand anthropogenic and natural contributions to the observed change, summer season trends from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) multimodel simulations forced with the observed external forcings [anthropogenic plus natural forcing (ALL), natural forcing only (NAT), and greenhouse gas forcing only (GHG)] were analyzed. ALL and GHG simulations were found to reproduce the overall observed global and regional lengthening trends, but NAT had negligible trends, which implies that increased greenhouse gases were the main cause of the observed changes. However, ALL runs tend to underestimate the observed trend of summer onset and overestimate that of withdrawal, the causes of which remain to be determined. Possible contributions of multidecadal variabilities, such as Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, to the observed regional trends in summer season length were also assessed. The results suggest that multidecadal variability can explain a moderate portion (about ±10%) of the observed trends in summer season length, mainly over the high latitudes.

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Eun-Young Kwon, Jea-Eun Jung, Uran Chung, Jin I. Yun, and Hee-Seung Park

Abstract

A winter-season warming trend has been observed in eastern Asian countries during the last century. Significant effects on dormancy and the subsequent bud-burst of deciduous fruit trees are expected. However, phenological observations are scant in comparison with long-time climate records in the region. Chill-day accumulation, estimated from daily maximum and minimum temperature, is a reasonable proxy for dormancy depth of temperate-zone fruit trees. A selected chill-day model was parameterized for the Campbell Early grapevine, which is the major cultivar (grown virtually everywhere) in South Korea. To derive model parameters (threshold temperature for chilling and the chilling requirement for breaking dormancy), a controlled-environment experiment using field-sampled twigs of Campbell Early was conducted. The chill-day model to estimate bud-burst dates was adjusted by derived parameters and was applied using 1994–2004 daily temperature data obtained from the automated weather station in the vineyard at the National Horticultural Research Institute. The model gave consistently good performance in predicting bud-burst of Campbell Early (RMSE of 2.5 days). To simulate dormancy depth of Campbell Early at eight locations in South Korea for the last century, the model was applied using data obtained for each location from 1921 to 2004. Calculations showed that the chilling requirement for breaking endodormancy of Campbell Early can be satisfied by mid-January to late February in South Korea, and the date was delayed going either northward or southward from the Daegu–Jeonju line that crosses the middle of South Korea in the east–west direction. Maximum length of the cold tolerant period (the number of days between endodormancy release and the forced dormancy release) showed the same spatial pattern. Dormancy release for 1981–2004 advanced by as much as 15 days relative to that for 1921–50 at all locations except Jeju (located in the southernmost island with a subtropical climate), where an average 15-day delay was predicted. The cold-tolerant period diminished somewhat at six out of eight locations. As a result, bud-burst of Campbell Early in spring was advanced by 6–10 days at most locations, and interannual variation in bud-burst dates increased at all locations. The earlier bud-burst after the 1970s was due to 1) warming in winter that results in earlier dormancy release (Incheon, Mokpo, Gangneung, and Jeonju), 2) warming in early spring that enhances regrowth after breaking dormancy (Busan and Jeju), and 3) a combination of both (Seoul and Daegu).

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Seung-Ki Min, Yeon-Hee Kim, In-Hong Park, Donghyun Lee, Sarah Sparrow, David Wallom, and Dáithí Stone
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Jhoon Kim, Ukkyo Jeong, Myoung-Hwan Ahn, Jae H. Kim, Rokjin J. Park, Hanlim Lee, Chul Han Song, Yong-Sang Choi, Kwon-Ho Lee, Jung-Moon Yoo, Myeong-Jae Jeong, Seon Ki Park, Kwang-Mog Lee, Chang-Keun Song, Sang-Woo Kim, Young Joon Kim, Si-Wan Kim, Mijin Kim, Sujung Go, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Christopher Chan Miller, Jay Al-Saadi, Ben Veihelmann, Pawan K. Bhartia, Omar Torres, Gonzalo González Abad, David P. Haffner, Dai Ho Ko, Seung Hoon Lee, Jung-Hun Woo, Heesung Chong, Sang Seo Park, Dennis Nicks, Won Jun Choi, Kyung-Jung Moon, Ara Cho, Jongmin Yoon, Sang-kyun Kim, Hyunkee Hong, Kyunghwa Lee, Hana Lee, Seoyoung Lee, Myungje Choi, Pepijn Veefkind, Pieternel F. Levelt, David P. Edwards, Mina Kang, Mijin Eo, Juseon Bak, Kanghyun Baek, Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Jiwon Yang, Junsung Park, Kyung Man Han, Bo-Ram Kim, Hee-Woo Shin, Haklim Choi, Ebony Lee, Jihyo Chong, Yesol Cha, Ja-Ho Koo, Hitoshi Irie, Sachiko Hayashida, Yasko Kasai, Yugo Kanaya, Cheng Liu, Jintai Lin, James H. Crawford, Gregory R. Carmichael, Michael J. Newchurch, Barry L. Lefer, Jay R. Herman, Robert J. Swap, Alexis K. H. Lau, Thomas P. Kurosu, Glen Jaross, Berit Ahlers, Marcel Dobber, C. Thomas McElroy, and Yunsoo Choi

Abstract

The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is scheduled for launch in February 2020 to monitor air quality (AQ) at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution from a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) for the first time. With the development of UV–visible spectrometers at sub-nm spectral resolution and sophisticated retrieval algorithms, estimates of the column amounts of atmospheric pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, and aerosols) can be obtained. To date, all the UV–visible satellite missions monitoring air quality have been in low Earth orbit (LEO), allowing one to two observations per day. With UV–visible instruments on GEO platforms, the diurnal variations of these pollutants can now be determined. Details of the GEMS mission are presented, including instrumentation, scientific algorithms, predicted performance, and applications for air quality forecasts through data assimilation. GEMS will be on board the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite 2 (GEO-KOMPSAT-2) satellite series, which also hosts the Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager 2 (GOCI-2). These three instruments will provide synergistic science products to better understand air quality, meteorology, the long-range transport of air pollutants, emission source distributions, and chemical processes. Faster sampling rates at higher spatial resolution will increase the probability of finding cloud-free pixels, leading to more observations of aerosols and trace gases than is possible from LEO. GEMS will be joined by NASA’s Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and ESA’s Sentinel-4 to form a GEO AQ satellite constellation in early 2020s, coordinated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS).

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