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Helen J. Reid

Abstract

A numerical weather prediction (NWP) model at the School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, has been used to simulate the southerly buster, a southerly wind surge along the coast of New South Wales (NSW), which occurs during the spring and summer months. Three southerly buster events were simulated and comparison of the model results with observational data demonstrated that the NWP model was very good in simulating this type of event. These simulations were then used to consider the intensity, depth, and location of the southerly buster surges as they progressed northward.

Both the strength and depth of the southerly buster surge decreased as it progressed farther north, particularly at the Hunter Valley. However, north of the Hunter Valley the intensity and depth increased again (in two of the three cases in this study) before dissipating completely. The location of the central part of the jet is adjacent to the Great Dividing Range, and the central jet splits at the northern side of the Hunter Valley to flow around either side of the mountains. The southerly flow into the Hunter Valley generally occurs before the continuation of the southerly buster up the coast.

Sensitivity experiments, in which the topography at and north of the Hunter Valley was altered, were designed so that the southerly buster surge was able to develop naturally and then encounter different topographical features. These experiments indicate that the southerly buster is weaker and slower due to the natural break in the mountain barrier at the Hunter Valley and that the mountains to the north of the Hunter Valley act to delay the movement farther north with indications of reintensification in the region. It is concluded that the topography has a significant effect on the propagation of the southerly buster.

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Helen J. Reid

Abstract

The southerly buster has been successfully simulated using a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model and verified (particularly the sea level pressure field). This simulation was then used to study the behavior of the southerly buster in the region of the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia, with the reintensification of the surge. In simulating the dynamics of the southerly buster in the vicinity of the Hunter Valley, both the horizontal and vertical resolution of the NWP are important. This was found through a series of simulations of a case study of 27 February 1998. The best simulation was achieved with 20 vertical levels, a coarse nesting into the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Limited Area Prediction System model, then down to finer grids in progressively higher resolutions.

The pressure ridge associated with the southerly buster is induced by the southerly flow up the southern parts of the Great Dividing Range resulting in anticyclonic vorticity that creates a region of high pressure ahead of the main high pressure cell behind the frontal system. This same mechanism is used to explain the reintensification of the surge at the northern part of the Great Dividing Range, which is characterized by a renewed peak in wind speed north of the Hunter Valley.

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Helen J. Reid
and
Lance M. Leslie

Abstract

During the spring and summer months, the southeast coast of Australia often experiences abrupt southerly wind changes, the leading edge being known locally as a “southerly buster.” The main characteristic of this phenomenon is the sudden shift in wind direction, usually from north or northwesterly to southerly. Associated with this wind surge is a significant temperature drop and sea level pressure rise. A severe southerly buster has wind speeds exceeding gale force (17 m s−1) and poses a threat to human safety.

Southerly busters have been the subject of a number of studies over several decades. These have focused on the development and propagation of the wind surge. The aims of this study are quite different, namely, to assess the ability of a real-time, high-resolution, numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to simulate some of the key features of the southerly buster, notably the time of passage and strength at various locations along the southeast coast and at two inland stations.

A large number (20) of case studies of southerly wind changes along the east coast of New South Wales has been selected to verify 40 simulations from the numerical model. The focus of the case studies was on quantifying the skill of the model in simulating the timing and speed of propagation of the southerly buster. The measure of skill adopted here was one based on a direct comparison of model predictions with observations. It was found that the performance of the model was good overall but was highly case dependent, particularly according to season and time of day, with some poor and some excellent simulations. This ability of the NWP model to provide predictions within an acceptable error has positive implications as a useful tool in real-time forecasting.

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William L. Smith Jr.
,
Christy Hansen
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Bruce E. Anderson
,
Matthew Beckley
,
Joseph G. Corbett
,
Richard I. Cullather
,
Keith M. Hines
,
Michelle Hofton
,
Seiji Kato
,
Dan Lubin
,
Richard H. Moore
,
Michal Segal Rosenhaimer
,
Jens Redemann
,
Sebastian Schmidt
,
Ryan Scott
,
Shi Song
,
John D. Barrick
,
J. Bryan Blair
,
David H. Bromwich
,
Colleen Brooks
,
Gao Chen
,
Helen Cornejo
,
Chelsea A. Corr
,
Seung-Hee Ham
,
A. Scott Kittelman
,
Scott Knappmiller
,
Samuel LeBlanc
,
Norman G. Loeb
,
Colin Miller
,
Louis Nguyen
,
Rabindra Palikonda
,
David Rabine
,
Elizabeth A. Reid
,
Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge
,
Peter Pilewskie
,
Yohei Shinozuka
,
Douglas Spangenberg
,
Paul Stackhouse
,
Patrick Taylor
,
K. Lee Thornhill
,
David van Gilst
, and
Edward Winstead

Abstract

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Arctic Radiation-IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) acquired unique aircraft data on atmospheric radiation and sea ice properties during the critical late summer to autumn sea ice minimum and commencement of refreezing. The C-130 aircraft flew 15 missions over the Beaufort Sea between 4 and 24 September 2014. ARISE deployed a shortwave and longwave broadband radiometer (BBR) system from the Naval Research Laboratory; a Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) from the University of Colorado Boulder; the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) from the NASA Ames Research Center; cloud microprobes from the NASA Langley Research Center; and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) laser altimeter system from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These instruments sampled the radiant energy exchange between clouds and a variety of sea ice scenarios, including prior to and after refreezing began. The most critical and unique aspect of ARISE mission planning was to coordinate the flight tracks with NASA Cloud and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensor observations in such a way that satellite sensor angular dependence models and derived top-of-atmosphere fluxes could be validated against the aircraft data over large gridbox domains of order 100–200 km. This was accomplished over open ocean, over the marginal ice zone (MIZ), and over a region of heavy sea ice concentration, in cloudy and clear skies. ARISE data will be valuable to the community for providing better interpretation of satellite energy budget measurements in the Arctic and for process studies involving ice–cloud–atmosphere energy exchange during the sea ice transition period.

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Sharon Stammerjohn
,
Ted A. Scambos
,
Susheel Adusumilli
,
Sandra Barreira
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Deniz Bozkurt
,
Seth M. Bushinsky
,
Kyle R. Clem
,
Steve Colwell
,
Lawrence Coy
,
Jos De Laat
,
Marcel D. du Plessis
,
Ryan L. Fogt
,
Annie Foppert
,
Helen Amanda Fricker
,
Alex S. Gardner
,
Sarah T. Gille
,
Tessa Gorte
,
Bryan Johnson
,
Eric Keenan
,
Daemon Kennett
,
Linda M. Keller
,
Natalya A. Kramarova
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Matthew A. Lazzara
,
Jan T. M. Lenaerts
,
Jan L. Lieser
,
Zhi Li
,
Hongxing Liu
,
Craig S. Long
,
Michael MacFerrin
,
Michelle L. Maclennan
,
Robert A. Massom
,
David Mikolajczyk
,
Lynn Montgomery
,
Thomas L. Mote
,
Eric R. Nash
,
Paul A. Newman
,
Irina Petropavlovskikh
,
Michael Pitts
,
Phillip Reid
,
Steven R. Rintoul
,
Michelle L. Santee
,
Elizabeth H. Shadwick
,
Alessandro Silvano
,
Scott Stierle
,
Susan Strahan
,
Adrienne J. Sutton
,
Sebastiaan Swart
,
Veronica Tamsitt
,
Bronte Tilbrook
,
Lei Wang
,
Nancy L. Williams
, and
Xiaojun Yuan
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Tim Boyer
,
Ellen Bartow-Gillies
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A. Abida
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Melanie Ades
,
Robert Adler
,
Susheel Adusumilli
,
W. Agyakwah
,
Brandon Ahmasuk
,
Laura S. Aldeco
,
Mihai Alexe
,
Eric J. Alfaro
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Richard P. Allan
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Adam Allgood
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Lincoln. M. Alves
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Jorge A. Amador
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John Anderson
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B. Andrade
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Orlane Anneville
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Yasuyuki Aono
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Anthony Arguez
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Carlo Arosio
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C. Atkinson
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John A. Augustine
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Grinia Avalos
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Cesar Azorin-Molina
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Stacia A. Backensto
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Stephan Bader
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Julian Baez
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Rebecca Baiman
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Thomas J. Ballinger
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Alison F. Banwell
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M. Yu Bardin
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Jonathan Barichivich
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John E. Barnes
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Sandra Barreira
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Rebecca L. Beadling
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Hylke E. Beck
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Emily J. Becker
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E. Bekele
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Guillem Martín Bellido
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Nicolas Bellouin
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Angela Benedetti
,
Rasmus Benestad
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Christine Berne
,
Logan. T. Berner
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Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
A. E. Bhuiyan
,
Siiri Bigalke
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Tiago Biló
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Peter Bissolli
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W. Bjerke Jarle
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Kevin Blagrave
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Eric S. Blake
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Stephen Blenkinsop
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Jessica Blunden
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Oliver Bochníček
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Olivier Bock
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Xavier Bodin
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Michael Bosilovich
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Olivier Boucher
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Deniz Bozkurt
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Brian Brettschneider
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Francis G. Bringas
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Francis Bringas
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Dennis Buechler
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Stefan A. Buehler
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Brandon Bukunt
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Blanca Calderón
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Suzana J. Camargo
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Jayaka Campbell
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Diego Campos
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Laura Carrea
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Brendan R. Carter
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Ivona Cetinić
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Don P. Chambers
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Duo Chan
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Elise Chandler
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Kai-Lan Chang
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Hua Chen
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Lin Chen
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Lijing Cheng
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Vincent Y. S. Cheng
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Leah Chomiak
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Hanne H. Christiansen
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John R. Christy
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Eui-Seok Chung
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Laura M. Ciasto
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Leonardo Clarke
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Kyle R. Clem
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Scott Clingan
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Caio A.S. Coelho
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Judah L. Cohen
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Melanie Coldewey-Egbers
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Steve Colwell
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Owen R. Cooper
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Richard C. Cornes
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Kris Correa
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Felipe Costa
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Curt Covey
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Lawrence Coy
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Jean-François Créatux
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Lenka Crhova
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Theresa Crimmins
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Meghan F. Cronin
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Thomas Cropper
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Molly Crotwell
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Joshua Culpepper
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Ana P. Cunha
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Diego Cusicanqui
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Rajashree T. Datta
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Sean M. Davis
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Veerle De Bock
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Richard A. M. de Jeu
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Jos De Laat
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Bertrand Decharme
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Doug Degenstein
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Reynald Delaloye
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Mesut Demircan
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Chris Derksen
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Ricardo Deus
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K. R. Dhurmea
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Howard J. Diamond
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S. Dirkse
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Dmitry Divine
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Martin T. Dokulil
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Markus G. Donat
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Shenfu Dong
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Wouter A. Dorigo
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Caroline Drost Jensen
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Matthew L. Druckenmiller
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Paula Drumond
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Marcel du Plessis
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Dashkhuu Dulamsuren
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Devon Dunmire
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Robert J. H. Dunn
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Imke Durre
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Geoff Dutton
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Gregory Duveiller
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Mithat Ekici
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Alesksandra Elias Chereque
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M. ElKharrim
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Howard E. Epstein
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Jhan-Carlo Espinoza
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Thomas W. Estilow
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Nicole Estrella
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Nicolas Fauchereau
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Robert S. Fausto
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Richard A. Feely
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Chris Fenimore
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David Fereday
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Xavier Fettweis
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vitali E. Fioletov
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Johannes Flemming
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Chris Fogarty
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Ryan L. Fogt
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Bruce C. Forbes
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Michael J. Foster
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Bryan A. Franz
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Natalie M. Freeman
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Helen A. Fricker
,
Stacey M. Frith
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Lucien Froidevaux
,
(JJ)
,
Steven Fuhrman
,
Martin Füllekrug
,
Catherine Ganter
,
Meng Gao
,
Alex S. Gardner
,
Judith Garforth
,
Jay Garg
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Badin Gibbes
,
Sarah T. Gille
,
John Gilson
,
Karin Gleason
,
Nadine Gobron
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Stanley B. Goldenberg
,
Gustavo Goni
,
Steven Goodman
,
Atsushi Goto
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Alexander Gruber
,
Guojun Gu
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
S. Hagos
,
Sebastian Hahn
,
Leopold Haimberger
,
Bradley D. Hall
,
Benjamin D. Hamlington
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
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Daniel S. Harnos
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Ian Harris
,
Qiong He
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Richard R. Heim Jr.
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Sverker Hellström
,
Deborah L. Hemming
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
J. Hicks
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
Martin Hirschi
,
(Ben)
,
W. Hobbs
,
Robert M. Holmes
,
Robert Holzworth
,
Filip Hrbáček
,
Guojie Hu
,
Zeng-Zhen Hu
,
Boyin Huang
,
Hongjie Huang
,
Dale F. Hurst
,
Iolanda Ialongo
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Antje Inness
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Ketil Isaksen
,
Masayoshi Ishii
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Gerardo Jadra
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Svetlana Jevrejeva
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Viju O. John
,
W. Johns
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Bjørn Johnsen
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Bryan Johnson
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Gregory C. Johnson
,
Philip D. Jones
,
Timothy Jones
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Simon A. Josey
,
G. Jumaux
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Robert Junod
,
Andreas Kääb
,
K. Kabidi
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Johannes W. Kaiser
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Robb S.A. Kaler
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Lars Kaleschke
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Viktor Kaufmann
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Amin Fazl Kazemi
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Linda M. Keller
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Andreas Kellerer-Pirklbauer
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Mike Kendon
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John Kennedy
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Elizabeth C. Kent
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Kenneth Kerr
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Valentina Khan
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Mai Van Khiem
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Richard Kidd
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Mi Ju Kim
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Seong-Joong Kim
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Zak Kipling
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Philip J. Klotzbach
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John A. Knaff
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Akash Koppa
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Natalia N. Korshunova
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Benjamin M. Kraemer
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Natalya A. Kramarova
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A. C. Kruger
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Andries Kruger
,
Arun Kumar
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Michelle L’Heureux
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Sofia La Fuente
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Alo Laas
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Zachary M. Labe
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Rick Lader
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Mónika Lakatos
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Kaisa Lakkala
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
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Xin Lan
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Peter Landschützer
,
Chris W. Landsea
,
Timothy Lang
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Matthias Lankhorst
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Kathleen O. Lantz
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
David A. Lavers
,
Matthew A. Lazzara
,
Thierry Leblanc
,
Tsz-Cheung Lee
,
Eric M. Leibensperger
,
Chris Lennard
,
Eric Leuliette
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Jan L. Lieser
,
Tanja Likso
,
I-I. Lin
,
Jackie Lindsey
,
Yakun Liu
,
Ricardo Locarnini
,
Norman G. Loeb
,
Bryant D. Loomis
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Andrew M. Lorrey
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Diego Loyola
,
Rui Lu
,
Rick Lumpkin
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Jing-Jia Luo
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Kari Luojus
,
John M. Lyman
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Stephen C. Maberly
,
Matthew J. Macander
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Michael MacFerrin
,
Graeme A. MacGilchrist
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Michelle L. MacLennan
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Remi Madelon
,
Andrew D. Magee
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Florence Magnin
,
Jostein Mamen
,
Ken D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
Izolda Marcinonienė
,
Jose A. Marengo
,
Mohammadi Marjan
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Ana E. Martínez
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Robert A. Massom
,
Shin-Ichiro Matsuzaki
,
Linda May
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Michael Mayer
,
Matthew R. Mazloff
,
Stephanie A. McAfee
,
C. McBride
,
Matthew F. McCabe
,
James W. McClelland
,
Michael J. McPhaden
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Tim R. Mcvicar
,
Carl A. Mears
,
Walter N. Meier
,
A. Mekonnen
,
Annette Menzel
,
Christopher J. Merchant
,
Mark A. Merrifield
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Michael F. Meyer
,
Tristan Meyers
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David E. Mikolajczyk
,
John B. Miller
,
Diego G. Miralles
,
Noelia Misevicius
,
Alexey Mishonov
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Gary T. Mitchum
,
Ben I. Moat
,
Leander Moesinger
,
Aurel Moise
,
Jorge Molina-Carpio
,
Ghislaine Monet
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Stephan A. Montzka
,
Twila A. Moon
,
G. W. K. Moore
,
Natali Mora
,
Johnny Morán
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Claire Morehen
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Colin Morice
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A. E. Mostafa
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Thomas L. Mote
,
Ivan Mrekaj
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Lawrence Mudryk
,
Jens Mühle
,
Rolf Müller
,
David Nance
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Eric R. Nash
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R. Steven Nerem
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Paul A. Newman
,
Julien P. Nicolas
,
Juan J. Nieto
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Jeannette Noetzli
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Ben Noll
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Taylor Norton
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Kelsey E. Nyland
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John O’Keefe
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Naomi Ochwat
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Yoshinori Oikawa
,
Yuka Okunaka
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Timothy J. Osborn
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James E. Overland
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Taejin Park
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Mark Parrington
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Julia K. Parrish
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Richard J. Pasch
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Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez
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Cécile Pellet
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Mauri S. Pelto
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Melita Perčec Tadić
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Donald K. Perovich
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Guðrún Nína Petersen
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Kyle Petersen
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Irina Petropavlovskikh
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Alek Petty
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Alexandre B. Pezza
,
Luciano P. Pezzi
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Coda Phillips
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Gareth K. Phoenix
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Don Pierson
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Izidine Pinto
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Vanda Pires
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Michael Pitts
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Stephen Po-Chedley
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Paolo Pogliotti
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Kristin Poinar
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Lorenzo Polvani
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Wolfgang Preimesberger
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Colin Price
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Merja Pulkkanen
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Sarah G. Purkey
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Bo Qiu
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Kenny Quisbert
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Willy R. Quispe
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M. Rajeevan
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Andrea M. Ramos
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William J. Randel
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Mika Rantanen
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Marilyn N. Raphael
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James Reagan
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Cristina Recalde
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Phillip Reid
,
Samuel Rémy
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Alejandra J. Reyes Kohler
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Lucrezia Ricciardulli
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Andrew D. Richardson
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Robert Ricker
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David A. Robinson
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M. Robjhon
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Willy Rocha
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Matthew Rodell
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Esteban Rodriguez Guisado
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Nemesio Rodriguez-Fernandez
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Vladimir E. Romanovsky
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Josyane Ronchail
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Matthew Rosencrans
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Karen H. Rosenlof
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Benjamin Rösner
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Henrieke Rösner
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Alexei Rozanov
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Jozef Rozkošný
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Frans Rubek
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Olga O. Rusanovskaya
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This Rutishauser
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C. T. Sabeerali
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Roberto Salinas
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Ahira Sánchez-Lugo
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Michelle L. Santee
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Marcelo Santini
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Katsunari Sato
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Parnchai Sawaengphokhai
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A. Sayouri
,
Theodore Scambos
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Verena Schenzinger
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Semjon Schimanke
,
Robert W. Schlegel
,
Claudia Schmid
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Martin Schmid
,
Udo Schneider
,
Carl J. Schreck
,
Cristina Schultz
,
Science Systems and Applications Inc. Science Systems and Applications Inc.
,
Z. T. Segele
,
Serhat Sensoy
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Shawn P. Serbin
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Mark C. Serreze
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Amsari Mudzakir Setiawan
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Fumi Sezaki
,
Sapna Sharma
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Jonathan D. Sharp
,
Gay Sheffield
,
Jia-Rui Shi
,
Lei Shi
,
Alexander I. Shiklomanov
,
Nikolay I. Shiklomanov
,
Svetlana V. Shimaraeva
,
R. Shukla
,
David A. Siegel
,
Eugene A. Silow
,
F. Sima
,
Adrian J. Simmons
,
David A. Smeed
,
Adam Smith
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Brian J. Soden
,
Viktoria Sofieva
,
Everaldo Souza
,
Tim H. Sparks
,
Jacqueline Spence-Hemmings
,
Robert G. M. Spencer
,
Sandra Spillane
,
O. P. Sreejith
,
A. K. Srivastava
,
Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.
,
Sharon Stammerjohn
,
Ryan Stauffer
,
Wolfgang Steinbrecht
,
Andrea K. Steiner
,
Jose L. Stella
,
Tannecia S. Stephenson
,
Pietro Stradiotti
,
Susan E. Strahan
,
Dmitry A. Streletskiy
,
Divya E. Surendran
,
Anya Suslova
,
Tove Svendby
,
William Sweet
,
Kiyotoshi Takahashi
,
Kazuto Takemura
,
Suzanne E. Tank
,
Michael A. Taylor
,
Marco Tedesco
,
Stephen J. Thackeray
,
W. M. Thiaw
,
Emmanuel Thibert
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
Andrew F. Thompson
,
Philip R. Thompson
,
Xiangshan Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Maxim A. Timofeyev
,
Skie Tobin
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Kleareti Tourpali
,
Lidia Trescilo
,
Mikhail Tretiakov
,
Blair C. Trewin
,
Joaquin A. Triñanes
,
Adrian Trotman
,
Ryan E. Truchelut
,
Luke D. Trusel
,
Mari R. Tye
,
Ronald van der A
,
Robin van der Schalie
,
Gerard van der Schrier
,
Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck
,
Arnold J.H. van vliet
,
Ahad Vazife
,
Piet Verburg
,
Jean-Paul Vernier
,
Isaac J. Vimont
,
Katrina Virts
,
Sebastián Vivero
,
Denis L. Volkov
,
Holger Vömel
,
Russell S. Vose
,
(Skip)
,
John E. Walsh
,
Bin Wang
,
Hui Wang
,
Muyin Wang
,
Ray H. J. Wang
,
Xinyue Wang
,
Rik Wanninkhof
,
Taran Warnock
,
Mark Weber
,
Melinda Webster
,
Adrian Wehrlé
,
Caihong Wen
,
Toby K. Westberry
,
Matthew J. Widlansky
,
David N. Wiese
,
Jeannette D. Wild
,
Jonathan D. Wille
,
An Willems
,
Kate M. Willett
,
Earle Williams
,
J. Willis
,
Takmeng Wong
,
Kimberly M. Wood
,
Richard Iestyn Woolway
,
Ping-Ping Xie
,
Dedi Yang
,
Xungang Yin
,
Ziqi Yin
,
Zhenzhong Zeng
,
Huai-min Zhang
,
Li Zhang
,
Peiqun Zhang
,
Lin Zhao
,
Xinjia Zhou
,
Zhiwei Zhu
,
Jerry R. Ziemke
,
Markus Ziese
,
Scott Zolkos
,
Ruxandra M. Zotta
,
Cheng-Zhi Zou
,
Jessicca Allen
,
Amy V. Camper
,
Bridgette O. Haley
,
Gregory Hammer
,
S. Elizabeth Love-Brotak
,
Laura Ohlmann
,
Lukas Noguchi
,
Deborah B. Riddle
, and
Sara W. Veasey

Abstract

—J. BLUNDEN, T. BOYER, AND E. BARTOW-GILLIES

Earth’s global climate system is vast, complex, and intricately interrelated. Many areas are influenced by global-scale phenomena, including the “triple dip” La Niña conditions that prevailed in the eastern Pacific Ocean nearly continuously from mid-2020 through all of 2022; by regional phenomena such as the positive winter and summer North Atlantic Oscillation that impacted weather in parts the Northern Hemisphere and the negative Indian Ocean dipole that impacted weather in parts of the Southern Hemisphere; and by more localized systems such as high-pressure heat domes that caused extreme heat in different areas of the world. Underlying all these natural short-term variabilities are long-term climate trends due to continuous increases since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the atmospheric concentrations of Earth’s major greenhouse gases.

In 2022, the annual global average carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere rose to 417.1±0.1 ppm, which is 50% greater than the pre-industrial level. Global mean tropospheric methane abundance was 165% higher than its pre-industrial level, and nitrous oxide was 24% higher. All three gases set new record-high atmospheric concentration levels in 2022.

Sea-surface temperature patterns in the tropical Pacific characteristic of La Niña and attendant atmospheric patterns tend to mitigate atmospheric heat gain at the global scale, but the annual global surface temperature across land and oceans was still among the six highest in records dating as far back as the mid-1800s. It was the warmest La Niña year on record. Many areas observed record or near-record heat. Europe as a whole observed its second-warmest year on record, with sixteen individual countries observing record warmth at the national scale. Records were shattered across the continent during the summer months as heatwaves plagued the region. On 18 July, 104 stations in France broke their all-time records. One day later, England recorded a temperature of 40°C for the first time ever. China experienced its second-warmest year and warmest summer on record. In the Southern Hemisphere, the average temperature across New Zealand reached a record high for the second year in a row. While Australia’s annual temperature was slightly below the 1991–2020 average, Onslow Airport in Western Australia reached 50.7°C on 13 January, equaling Australia's highest temperature on record.

While fewer in number and locations than record-high temperatures, record cold was also observed during the year. Southern Africa had its coldest August on record, with minimum temperatures as much as 5°C below normal over Angola, western Zambia, and northern Namibia. Cold outbreaks in the first half of December led to many record-low daily minimum temperature records in eastern Australia.

The effects of rising temperatures and extreme heat were apparent across the Northern Hemisphere, where snow-cover extent by June 2022 was the third smallest in the 56-year record, and the seasonal duration of lake ice cover was the fourth shortest since 1980. More frequent and intense heatwaves contributed to the second-greatest average mass balance loss for Alpine glaciers around the world since the start of the record in 1970. Glaciers in the Swiss Alps lost a record 6% of their volume. In South America, the combination of drought and heat left many central Andean glaciers snow free by mid-summer in early 2022; glacial ice has a much lower albedo than snow, leading to accelerated heating of the glacier. Across the global cryosphere, permafrost temperatures continued to reach record highs at many high-latitude and mountain locations.

In the high northern latitudes, the annual surface-air temperature across the Arctic was the fifth highest in the 123-year record. The seasonal Arctic minimum sea-ice extent, typically reached in September, was the 11th-smallest in the 43-year record; however, the amount of multiyear ice—ice that survives at least one summer melt season—remaining in the Arctic continued to decline. Since 2012, the Arctic has been nearly devoid of ice more than four years old.

In Antarctica, an unusually large amount of snow and ice fell over the continent in 2022 due to several landfalling atmospheric rivers, which contributed to the highest annual surface mass balance, 15% to 16% above the 1991–2020 normal, since the start of two reanalyses records dating to 1980. It was the second-warmest year on record for all five of the long-term staffed weather stations on the Antarctic Peninsula. In East Antarctica, a heatwave event led to a new all-time record-high temperature of −9.4°C—44°C above the March average—on 18 March at Dome C. This was followed by the collapse of the critically unstable Conger Ice Shelf. More than 100 daily low sea-ice extent and sea-ice area records were set in 2022, including two new all-time annual record lows in net sea-ice extent and area in February.

Across the world’s oceans, global mean sea level was record high for the 11th consecutive year, reaching 101.2 mm above the 1993 average when satellite altimetry measurements began, an increase of 3.3±0.7 over 2021. Globally-averaged ocean heat content was also record high in 2022, while the global sea-surface temperature was the sixth highest on record, equal with 2018. Approximately 58% of the ocean surface experienced at least one marine heatwave in 2022. In the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand’s longest continuous marine heatwave was recorded.

A total of 85 named tropical storms were observed during the Northern and Southern Hemisphere storm seasons, close to the 1991–2020 average of 87. There were three Category 5 tropical cyclones across the globe—two in the western North Pacific and one in the North Atlantic. This was the fewest Category 5 storms globally since 2017. Globally, the accumulated cyclone energy was the lowest since reliable records began in 1981. Regardless, some storms caused massive damage. In the North Atlantic, Hurricane Fiona became the most intense and most destructive tropical or post-tropical cyclone in Atlantic Canada’s history, while major Hurricane Ian killed more than 100 people and became the third costliest disaster in the United States, causing damage estimated at $113 billion U.S. dollars. In the South Indian Ocean, Tropical Cyclone Batsirai dropped 2044 mm of rain at Commerson Crater in Réunion. The storm also impacted Madagascar, where 121 fatalities were reported.

As is typical, some areas around the world were notably dry in 2022 and some were notably wet. In August, record high areas of land across the globe (6.2%) were experiencing extreme drought. Overall, 29% of land experienced moderate or worse categories of drought during the year. The largest drought footprint in the contiguous United States since 2012 (63%) was observed in late October. The record-breaking megadrought of central Chile continued in its 13th consecutive year, and 80-year record-low river levels in northern Argentina and Paraguay disrupted fluvial transport. In China, the Yangtze River reached record-low values. Much of equatorial eastern Africa had five consecutive below-normal rainy seasons by the end of 2022, with some areas receiving record-low precipitation totals for the year. This ongoing 2.5-year drought is the most extensive and persistent drought event in decades, and led to crop failure, millions of livestock deaths, water scarcity, and inflated prices for staple food items.

In South Asia, Pakistan received around three times its normal volume of monsoon precipitation in August, with some regions receiving up to eight times their expected monthly totals. Resulting floods affected over 30 million people, caused over 1700 fatalities, led to major crop and property losses, and was recorded as one of the world’s costliest natural disasters of all time. Near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Petrópolis received 530 mm in 24 hours on 15 February, about 2.5 times the monthly February average, leading to the worst disaster in the city since 1931 with over 230 fatalities.

On 14–15 January, the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai submarine volcano in the South Pacific erupted multiple times. The injection of water into the atmosphere was unprecedented in both magnitude—far exceeding any previous values in the 17-year satellite record—and altitude as it penetrated into the mesosphere. The amount of water injected into the stratosphere is estimated to be 146±5 Terragrams, or ∼10% of the total amount in the stratosphere. It may take several years for the water plume to dissipate, and it is currently unknown whether this eruption will have any long-term climate effect.

Open access