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Andre Tremblay and Henry Leighton

Abstract

A cloud chemistry model is formulated in term of continuity equations for chemical species in the aqueous and aqueous phases within the cloud. The model includes scavenging of SO2, HNO3, HN3, H2O3, and sulphate aerosol particles. Calculations have been performed within the framework of a three-dimensional convective cloud model. The results are compared with aircraft measurements of cloud water chemistry.

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Irena T. Ivanova and Henry G. Leighton

Abstract

High-resolution numerical simulations of the aerosol–cloud feedbacks are performed with a mesoscale model. The multimodal aerosol species, added to the model, and the cloud species were represented by two spectral moments. The aerosol sources include particle activation, solute transfer between drops due to collision and coalescence of drops, and particle regeneration. A summertime case was simulated consisting of a cold frontal cloud system and a postfrontal stratus. Experiments with both simple and mechanistic activation parameterization of aerosol and with one and two aerosol modes were performed. Verification was made of the stratus properties against measurements taken during the Radiation Aerosol and Cloud Experiment (RACE).

The results demonstrate a significant sensitivity of the stratus and of the frontal system to the aerosol and a moderate impact on the particle spectrum of drop collision–coalescence. The stratus simulation with mechanistic activation and unimodal aerosol showed the best agreement of droplet concentration with the observations, and the simulations with mechanistic activation and a bimodal aerosol and with simple activation underestimated the droplet concentration. A similar high sensitivity was found for the frontal precipitation intensity. Drop collision–coalescence in the frontal system was found to have an impact on the particle mean radius whose magnitude amounted to 10% and 15% for one and multiple cloud cycles, respectively. This impact was also found to be highly variable in space. The modified particle spectrum, following activation in clouds, was found to increase droplet concentration.

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Irena T. Ivanova and Henry G. Leighton

Abstract

The feedbacks between aerosols, cloud microphysics, and cloud chemistry are investigated in a mesoscale model. A simple bulk aqueous-phase sulfur chemistry scheme was fully coupled to the existing aerosol and microphysics schemes. The representation of aerosol and microphysics follows the explicit bulk double-moment approach. A case of summertime stratocumulus cloud system is simulated at high resolution (3-km grid spacing), and the evolution of an observed continental aerosol spectrum that changes during the course of the simulation as a result of cloud processing is examined.

The results demonstrate that the bulk approach to the aerosol and droplet spectra correctly represents the feedbacks in the coupled system. The simulations capture the characteristic bimodal aerosol size spectrum resulting from cloud processing, with the first mode consisting of particles that did not participate as cloud condensation nuclei and the second mode, in the region of 0.08–0.12-μm radii, comprising the particles that were affected by processing. New information is revealed about the impact of the two main processing pathways and about the spatial distribution of the processed aerosol. One cycle of physical processing produced a relatively modest impact of 3%–5% on the processed particle mean radius of the order that was comparable to the impact of chemical processing, while continuous physical recycling produced a much larger impact as high as 30%–50%. A strong constraint on the chemical processing was found to be the initial chemistry input and the assumption of bulk chemical composition. Simple tests with a more slowly depleting primary oxidant (H2O2) and including the droplet chemical heterogeneity effect favor stronger sulfate production, by, respectively, the H2O2 and O3 oxidation reaction, and both show a larger impact on the processed particle mean radius of similar magnitude, 10%–20%. Spatially, the impact of processing is found initially in the downdraft regions below cloud and at later times at substantial distances downwind. It is shown that cloud processing can either enhance or suppress the number of activated drops in subsequent cycles.

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Jian Feng, Henry Leighton, and Murray MacKay

Abstract

The Canadian Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Enhanced Study (CAGES) was a 14-month period in 1998–99 during which there were enhanced measurements of water vapor, precipitation, snow cover, radiation, snowmelt, evaporation, stream discharge, and other variables in the Mackenzie River basin (MRB). These measurements provided the initialization and validation fields for modeling and remote sensing studies. During the CAGES period there were only limited broadband satellite observations of radiation fluxes over the MRB from the second flight module of the Scanner for Radiation Budget (ScaRaB) instrument. A more extensive dataset of solar radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface was derived for CAGES from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations. The derived solar radiation fluxes at the surface were evaluated against the surface measurements in the basin. The results show that mean differences are generally less than 10 W m−2 at each site.

Solar fluxes at the TOA and at the surface, and longwave (LW) fluxes at the TOA from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) are compared with those from satellite measurements and retrievals. It is found that the CRCM overestimated the TOA reflected solar flux consistently by an average of 33 W m−2 during summer months, while during months when the surface is mainly covered by snow, the CRCM agrees with satellite retrievals well, with a mean difference of 2.1 W m−2. The differences in the basin monthly mean atmospheric absorption between the CRCM and the satellite retrievals for 9 months during the CAGES period vary from −11 to 12 W m−2. The overestimation of the TOA-reflected fluxes in the model during the summer months is mainly at the expense of an underestimation of the net surface solar fluxes. A comparison of cloud amount from the CRCM and the satellite retrievals shows an overprediction by the CRCM, which is responsible for the overestimation of the TOA-reflected flux during the summer months. A comparison of outgoing LW flux from the CRCM with satellite measurements in winter months during the CAGES period shows the CRCM fluxes to be 6–12 W m−2 less than the measured fluxes, which is at least partly due to the underestimation of surface temperature in the model.

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John M. Hanesiak, Ronald E. Stewart, Kit K. Szeto, David R. Hudak, and Henry G. Leighton

Abstract

On 30 September 1994 an Arctic low pressure system passed over the southern Beaufort Sea area of northern Canada and research aircraft observations were made within and around the warm front of the storm. This study is unique in that the warm front contained subzero centigrade temperatures across the entire frontal region. The overall structure of the warm front and surrounding region was similar to midlatitude storms; however, the precipitation rates, liquid water content magnitudes, horizontal and vertical winds, vertical wind shear, turbulence, and thermal advection were very weak. In addition, a low-level jet and cloud bands were aligned parallel to the warm front, near-neutral stability occurred within and around the front, and conditional symmetric instability was likely occurring. A steep frontal region resulted from strong Coriolis influences that in turn limited the amount of cloud and precipitation ahead of the system. The precipitation efficiency of the storm was high (60%) but is believed to be highly dependent on the stage of development. The mesoscale frontogenetic forcing was primarily controlled by the tilting of isentropic surfaces with confluence/convergence being the secondary influence. Sublimation contributions may have been large in the earlier stages of storm development. Satellite and aircraft radiometers underestimated cloud top heights by as much as 4 km and this was mostly due to the near transparency of the lofted ice layer in the upper portion of the storm. Maximum surface solar radiation deficits ranged between 91 W m−2 and 187 W m−2 at two surface observing sites. This common type of cloud system must have a major impact on the water and energy cycles of northern Canada in the autumn and therefore must be well accounted for within climate models.

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Seth Nemesure, Robert D. Cess, Ellsworth G. Dutton, John J. Deluisi, Zhanqing Li, and Henry G. Leighton

Abstract

Recent data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have raised the question as to whether or not the addition of clouds to the atmospheric column can decrease the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) albedo over bright snow-covered surfaces. To address this issue, ERBE shortwave pixel measurements have been collocated with surface insolation measurements made at two snow-covered locations: the South Pole and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Both collocated datasets show a negative correlation (with solar zenith angle variability removed) between TOA albedo and surface insulation. Because increased cloudiness acts to reduce surface insulation, these negative correlations demonstrate that clouds increase the TOA albedo at both snow-covered locations.

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Jiming Sun, Parisa A. Ariya, Henry G. Leighton, and Man Kong Yau

Abstract

Observations of large concentrations of ice particles in the dissipating stage of warm-based precipitating shallow cumulus clouds point to the limitations of scientists’ understanding of the physics of such clouds and the possible role of cloud dynamics. The most commonly accepted mechanisms of ice splinter production in the riming process have limitations to properly explain the rapid production of ice bursts. A more detailed description of the temporal and spatial evolution of hydrometeors and their interaction with cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei is needed to understand this phenomenon. A cloud model with bin-resolved microphysics can describe the time-dependent evolution of liquid droplets and ice particles and provide insights into how the physics and dynamics and their interaction may result in ice initiation and ice multiplication. The authors developed a 1.5-dimensional nonhydrostatic convective cloud and aerosol interaction model with spectral (bin) microphysics. The number and mass concentrations of aerosols, including ice nuclei and cloud condensation nuclei, were explicitly followed. Since both in situ observations of bioaerosols and laboratory experiments pointed to efficient nucleation capabilities at relative warm temperatures, it was assumed that ice-nucleating bioaerosols are involved in primary ice particle formation in condensation and immersion modes. Results show that bioaerosols can be the source of primary ice pellets, which in turn lead to high ice concentrations.

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