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Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

Sensitivity of the global thermohaline circulation to interbasin freshwater transport by the atmosphere and the Bering Strait throughflow is investigated by using a free-surface, coarse-resolution ocean general circulation model. The model is run by prescribing freshwater flux at the sea surface without restoring the sea surface salinity to climatology in order that effects of salinity advection are properly represented. Comparison of experiments with the open and closed Bering Strait shows that the throughflow reduces the intensity of the Atlantic deep circulation by ∼17%, while minimally affecting the Pacific deep circulation. Increase in the atmospheric freshwater transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific intensifies both the Atlantic deep circulation and the Bering Strait throughflow. On the other hand, changes in the throughflow transport under a fixed amount of atmospheric interbasin freshwater transport are found to have a minor impact on the global thermohaline circulation. This insensitivity is realized because increased volume transport leads to increased salinity advection from low to high latitudes in the North Pacific and hence causes a salinity increase at the strait. Reducing net freshwater export from the Atlantic sea surface to nearly zero results in shutdown of the Atlantic deep circulation. The actual atmospheric freshwater transport anomaly required to shut the circulation down depends on the configuration of the Bering Strait, and the Atlantic deep circulation shows high sensitivity to the atmospheric freshwater transport around the shutdown.

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Yoshimasa Matsumura
and
Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

Dynamics of cross-isobath downslope transport of a dense water mass induced by small-scale topographic variation is investigated based on a high-resolution numerical experiment with realistic settings, a simplified analytical model for water particle advection, and idealized sensitivity experiments. The existence of a submarine ridge induces two different processes for cross-isobath downslope transport of dense water: a strong but narrow and thin downslope current at the east side of the ridge and cyclonic eddies with dense water cores to the west of the ridge. The former downslope current is produced in response to the rapid increase of slope angle near the ridge. The latter eddies are formed by stretching of the dense water layer near the crest, where isobath curvature is so high that offshore centrifugal force overcomes the coastward Coriolis force. From a simple analysis on the equation of motion for a fluid particle placed on a slope with curved isobaths, a general criterion that describes whether a density current follows or crosses isobaths is derived, which is supported by idealized sensitivity experiments. The location where cross-isobath transport of dense water takes place is determined by relative magnitude between spatial derivatives of isobath curvature, planetary vorticity, and slope angle. Based on these arguments, a parameterization is proposed to represent the effect of unresolved small-scale topography in coarse-resolution models.

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Motohiko Tsugawa
and
Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

The Natal pulses, solitary cyclonic meanders in the Agulhas Current, are reproduced in an ocean general circulation model. The model covers the region around the Agulhas Current with a grid fine enough to reproduce major eddies. The features of the reproduced Natal pulses are consistent with observational evidences in the following respects: they are generated at the Natal Bight when anticyclonic eddies come, move downstream along the Agulhas Current at speeds about 20 km day−1, and grow in its horizontal size as they move. The present simulation shows that the generation and growth of the Natal pulse occurs because of the interaction between the mean flow of the Agulhas Current and an anticyclonic eddy. A supplemental simulation, where the topography of the Natal Bight is modified, indicates that the topography of the Natal Bight does not cause the generation of the Natal pulses, contrary to a previous suggestion.

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Hiroyasu Hasumi
and
Nobuo Suginohara

Abstract

Vertical diffusivity at the thermocline depths is now believed to be as small as 1 × 10−5 m2 s−1. In order to accomplish a reliable simulation of the World Ocean for the vertical diffusivity of 1 × 10−5 m2 s−1, two advective tracer transport schemes, the Uniformly Third-Order Polynominal Interpolation Algorithm (UTOPIA) of and the Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) of Smolarkiewicz, are incorporated into an ocean general circulation model. Intercomparison is made among simulations using UTOPIA, MPDATA, and the centered differencing scheme. When UTOPIA or MPDATA is adopted, features at the thermocline depths are realistically simulated. Increase in computational cost is moderate. Circulations associated with Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Atlantic and Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) in the Pacific are not reproduced at all for such small vertical diffusivity, although the circulation associated with North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) has reasonable intensity. Another experiment with UTOPIA for the vertical diffusivity of 5 × 10−5 m2 s−1 shows that the circulation associated with NADW is relatively insensitive to vertical diffusivity, compared with the circulation associated with AABW and CDW.

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Hideyuki Nakano
and
Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

A series of zonal currents in the Pacific Ocean is investigated using eddy-permitting ocean general circulation models. The zonal currents in the subsurface are classified into two parts: one is a series of broad zonal flows that has the meridional pattern slanting poleward with increasing depth and the other is finescale zonal jets with the meridional scale of 3°–5° formed in each broad zonal flow. The basic pattern for the broad zonal flows is similar between the coarse-resolution model and the eddy-permitting model and is thought to be the response to the wind forcing. A part of the zonal jets embedded in each zonal flow is explained by the anomalous local wind forcing. Most of them, however, seem to be mainly created by the rectification of turbulent processes on a β plane (the Rhines effect), and zonal jets in this study have common features with the zonally elongated flows obtained in previous modeling studies conducted in idealized basins. The position of zonal jets is not stable when the ocean floor is flat, whereas it oscillates only within a few degrees under realistic bottom topography.

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Yoshimasa Matsumura
and
Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

Eddy generation induced by a line-shaped salt flux under a sea ice lead and associated salt transport are investigated using a three-dimensional numerical model. The model is designed to represent a typical condition for the wintertime Arctic Ocean mixed layer, where new ice formation within leads is known to be one of the primary sources of dense water. The result shows that along-lead baroclinic jets generate anticyclonic eddies at the base of the mixed layer, and almost all the lead-originated salt is contained inside these eddies. These eddies survive for over a month after closing of the lead and transport the lead-originated salt laterally. Consequently, the lead-origin salt settles only on the top of the halocline and is not used for increasing salinity of the mixed layer. Sensitivity experiments suggest that the horizontal scale of generated eddies depends only on the surface forcing and is proportional to the cube root of the total amount of salt input. This scaling of eddy size is consistent with a theoretical argument based on a linear instability theory. Parameterizing these processes would improve representation of the Arctic Ocean mixed layer in ocean general circulation models.

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Eiji Watanabe
and
Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

The process of the Pacific water transport in the Chukchi Sea and the southern Canada Basin is investigated by using an eddy-resolving coupled sea ice–ocean model. The simulation result demonstrates that the Pacific water flows into the basin by mesoscale baroclinic eddies, which are generated and developed as a result of the instability of a narrow and intense jet through the Barrow Canyon. Each eddy has a baroclinic anticyclonic structure, and its horizontal and vertical scales grow up by being merged with other ones during August and September, they separate into anticyclones whose diameters are about 50 km in October, and then they gradually shrink in early winter. The Pacific water transport across the Beaufort shelf break reaches maximum (about 0.3 Sv, where 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) during late summer and early autumn when the eddy activities are enhanced. The sensitivity experiments indicate that the shelf-to-basin transport differs depending on the sea ice condition in the Chukchi Sea during summer. The difference is found to be associated with the jet strength, which is closely related to the location of the sea ice margin. When the sea ice margin is located in the Canada Basin, the jet is stronger, and mesoscale eddy activities and corresponding inflow of the Pacific water into the basin are enhanced. When sea ice remains in the shelf even in late summer, sea ice ocean stress plays a great role in braking the jet and the consequent suppression of the shelf-to-basin transport. The freshwater and heat transports into the basin associated with the Pacific water inflow depend on not only the volume flux but also on surface buoyancy flux in the shelf, which varies according to sea ice condition. The freshwater transport referenced to 34.8 psu is 259 km3 yr−1 in the medium sea ice extent case. Although the Pacific water becomes freshened as a result of its mixing with sea ice meltwater in the large extent case, the freshwater transport is still less than in the other cases. The heat transport is promoted by preferable absorption of solar heat in addition to energetic eddy-induced transport in the small extent case. The heat amount provided into the basin is equivalent to the reduction of sea ice thickness by about 1 m yr−1 north of the Chukchi and Beaufort shelf breaks.

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Yoshiki Komuro
and
Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

Low-salinity water export through the Canadian Archipelago is one of the main components of the freshwater budget in the Arctic Ocean. Nevertheless, the Canadian Archipelago is closed in most global ocean models. How it is that deep-water formation at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere depends on the opening and closing of the Canadian Archipelago is investigated. An ice–ocean coupled model, whose horizontal resolution is 1°, is used without restoring surface salinity to observed data. When the Canadian Archipelago is open, the Atlantic deep circulation strengthens by 21%. This enhancement is caused by intensification of deep-water formation in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. Surface salinity in these regions is affected by the East Greenland Current, which flows from the Fram Strait and increases its salinity when the Canadian Archipelago is opened. The low-salinity flow through the Canadian Archipelago affects surface salinity only in the western part of the Labrador Sea. A cyclonic circulation in the Labrador Sea plays an important role in limiting the direct impact of the Canadian Archipelago throughflow. Consequently, the deep-water formation there is intensified and the Atlantic deep circulation is strengthened. Thus, it is suggested that the Canadian Archipelago throughflow does not weaken the Atlantic deep circulation by the freshening of the Labrador Sea but strengthens it by the salinity increase in the Fram Strait.

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Akira Oka
and
Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

Numerical experiments are conducted using a sea ice–coupled ocean general circulation model (OGCM) forced by two different freshwater flux datasets. These two datasets are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction– National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)-based climatological datasets, which are widely used to force OGCMs. It is found that the strength of the simulated Atlantic deep circulation considerably differs between the two experiments. To explain the resulting difference, these two freshwater fluxes are compared and additional experiments are carried out, focusing on the difference at northern high and midlatitudes, at low latitudes, and in the Southern Ocean, separately. An examination of these experiments shows that the difference in the simulated Atlantic deep circulation comes mainly from the difference in the river runoff data, especially at the northern high latitudes. Although the amount of the difference in the river runoff data at northern high latitudes is small, compared with that of the evaporation and the precipitation in other regions, it has a considerable influence on the strength of the Atlantic deep circulation. It indicates that the strength of the Atlantic deep circulation is affected more significantly by the accuracy of the river runoff data than that of the evaporation and the precipitation data.

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L. Shogo Urakawa
and
Hiroyasu Hasumi

Abstract

Cabbeling effect on the water mass transformation in the Southern Ocean is investigated with the use of an eddy-resolving Southern Ocean model. A significant amount of water is densified by cabbeling: water mass transformation rates are about 4 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) for transformation from surface/thermocline water to Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), about 7 Sv for transformation from SAMW to Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), and about 5 Sv for transformation from AAIW to Upper Circumpolar Deep Water. These diapycnal volume transports occur around the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), where mesoscale eddies are active. The water mass transformation by cabbeling in this study is also characterized by a large amount of densification of Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) into Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) (about 9 Sv). Large diapycnal velocity is found not only along the ACC but also along the coast of Antarctica at the boundary between LCDW and AABW. It is found that about 3 Sv of LCDW is densified into AABW by cabbeling on the continental slopes of Antarctica in this study. This densification is not small compared with observational and numerical estimates on the AABW formation rate, which ranges from 10 to 20 Sv.

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