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Huo-Jin Huang
and
Dayton G. Vincent

Abstract

An analysis of the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns over the South Pacific during part of FGGE SOP-1, 10–27 January 1979, is presented. Results, which are derived from Level III-b analyses produced at ECMWF, are composited for three time periods, based on changing characteristics of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ): 0000 GMT 10 January–1200 GMT 18 January, when the SPCZ was a quasistationary persistent feature of the circulation; 0000 GMT 19 January–0000 GMT 24 January, when the SPCZ propagated westward and began to weaken; and 1200 GMT 24 January–1200 GMT 27 January, when it disappeared.

The major findings include 1) the buildup of high pressure in the eastern Pacific coincident with the westward movement of the SPCZ, followed by a rapid buildup of high pressure over the central Pacific and demise of the SPCZ; 2) a trend from middle and upper tropospheric wavelike patterns in wind, temperature and height to more zonally-oriented patterns when the SPCZ disappears; and 3) strong cross-equatorial flow from the SPCZ into the Northern Hemisphere during the first period and strong poleward flow from the SPCZ into middle latitudes during the first two periods.

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Huo-Jin Huang
and
Dayton G. Vincent

Abstract

A modified set of Level III-b grid point analyses, originally produced by ECMWF, is used to diagnose the circulation features and energy conversions in the Southern Hemisphere during the FGGE SOP-1 period of 10–27 January 1979. One of the dominant features during the period was the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), a large-scale, quasi-stationary, convectively-active cloud band over the South Pacific Ocean. The study focuses on the significance of the SPCZ on Southern Hemisphere energy conversions by partitioning the conversions into zonal and eddy (transient and standing) components. The mean state is examined for a 15-day period, 10–24 January, when the SPCZ was most active. After 24 January it dissipated. In addition, daily variations are examined for the entire period and a zonal wavenumber analysis fox. wavenumbers 1–15 is performed.

The major findings are that 1) the baroclinic conversion of eddy potential to eddy kinetic energy (CE) is the dominant conversion term in the tropics (0–30°S), and it is particularly important in the vicinity of the SPCZ; 2) all conversion terms in middle latitudes (30–60°S) are comparable and equally important; 3) standing (transient) eddies make the most significant contribution to CE (all eddy conversion terms) in the tropics and SPCZ area (midlatitudes); 4) wavenumber 4 dominates the CE conversion in the tropics, whereas wavenumbers 5–8 dominate all the eddy conversions in middle latitudes; 5) one of the four waves in the n=4CE conversion in the tropics coincides with the SPCZ, while the remaining three correspond to the continental areas of Africa, Australia and South America; and 6) during the last three days, when the SPCZ is decaying, the importance of the n=4 contribution to CE is negligible.

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Fan Yang
,
Qing He
,
Jianping Huang
,
Ali Mamtimin
,
Xinghua Yang
,
Wen Huo
,
Chenglong Zhou
,
Xinchun Liu
,
Wenshou Wei
,
Caixia Cui
,
Minzhong Wang
,
Hongjun Li
,
Lianmei Yang
,
Hongsheng Zhang
,
Yuzhi Liu
,
Xinqian Zheng
,
Honglin Pan
,
Lili Jin
,
Han Zou
,
Libo Zhou
,
Yongqiang Liu
,
Jiantao Zhang
,
Lu Meng
,
Yu Wang
,
Xiaolin Qin
,
Yongjun Yao
,
Houyong Liu
,
Fumin Xue
, and
Wei Zheng

Abstract

As the second-largest shifting sand desert worldwide, the Taklimakan Desert (TD) represents the typical aeolian landforms in arid regions as an important source of global dust aerosols. It directly affects the ecological environment and human health across East Asia. Thus, establishing a comprehensive environment and climate observation network for field research in the TD region is essential to improve our understanding of the desert meteorology and environment, assess its impact, mitigate potential environmental issues, and promote sustainable development. With a nearly 20-yr effort under the extremely harsh conditions of the TD, the Desert Environment and Climate Observation Network (DECON) has been established completely covering the TD region. The core of DECON is the Tazhong station in the hinterland of the TD. Moreover, the network also includes 4 satellite stations located along the edge of the TD for synergistic observations, and 18 automatic weather stations interspersed between them. Thus, DECON marks a new chapter of environmental and meteorological observation capabilities over the TD, including dust storms, dust emission and transport mechanisms, desert land–atmosphere interactions, desert boundary layer structure, ground calibration for remote sensing monitoring, and desert carbon sinks. In addition, DECON promotes cooperation and communication within the research community in the field of desert environments and climate, which promotes a better understanding of the status and role of desert ecosystems. Finally, DECON is expected to provide the basic support necessary for coordinated environmental and meteorological monitoring and mitigation, joint construction of ecologically friendly communities, and sustainable development of central Asia.

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