Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: Hyo-Seok Park x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Hyo-Seok Park, Shang-Ping Xie, and Seok-Woo Son

Abstract

The orographic effect of the Tibetan Plateau on atmospheric poleward heat transport is investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model. The linear interference between the Tibetan Plateau–induced winds and the eddy temperature field associated with the land–sea thermal contrast is a key factor for enhancing the poleward stationary eddy heat transport. Specifically, Tibetan Plateau–induced stationary waves produce northerlies over the cold eastern Eurasian continent, leading to a poleward heat transport. In another hot spot of stationary eddy heat transport over the eastern North Pacific, Tibetan Plateau–induced stationary waves transport relatively warm marine air northward.

In an experiment where the Tibetan Plateau is removed, the poleward heat transport is mostly accomplished by transient eddies, similar to the Southern Hemisphere. In the presence of the Tibetan Plateau, the enhanced stationary eddy heat transport is offset by a comparable reduction in transient eddy heat transport. This compensation between stationary and transient eddy heat transport is seen in observed interannual variability. Both the model and observations indicate that an enhanced poleward heat transport by stationary waves weakens transient eddies by decreasing the meridional temperature gradient and the associated westerlies in midlatitudes.

Full access
Hyo-Seok Park, John C. H. Chiang, and Seok-Woo Son

Abstract

The role of the central Asian mountains on North Pacific storminess is examined using an atmospheric general circulation model by varying the height and the areas of the mountains. A series of model integrations show that the presence of the central Asian mountains suppresses the North Pacific storminess by 20%–30% during boreal winter. Their impact on storminess is found to be small during other seasons. The mountains amplify stationary waves and effectively weaken the high-frequency transient eddy kinetic energy in boreal winter. Two main causes of the reduced storminess are diagnosed. First, the decrease in storminess appears to be associated with a weakening of downstream eddy development. The mountains disorganize the zonal coherency of wave packets and refract them more equatorward. As the zonal traveling distance of wave packets gets substantially shorter, downstream eddy development gets weaker. Second, the central Asian mountains suppress the global baroclinic energy conversion. The decreased baroclinic energy conversion, particularly over the eastern Eurasian continent, decreases the number of eddy disturbances entering into the western North Pacific. The “barotropic governor” does not appear to explain the reduced storminess in our model simulations.

Full access
Hyo-Seok Park, John C. H. Chiang, and Seok-Woo Son
Full access
Hyo-Seok Park, John C. H. Chiang, and Simona Bordoni

Abstract

The impact of the Tibetan Plateau on the South Asian monsoon is examined using a hierarchy of atmospheric general circulation models. During the premonsoon season and monsoon onset (April–June), when westerly winds over the Southern Tibetan Plateau are still strong, the Tibetan Plateau triggers early monsoon rainfall downstream, particularly over the Bay of Bengal and South China. The downstream moist convection is accompanied by strong monsoonal low-level winds. In experiments where the Tibetan Plateau is removed, monsoon onset occurs about a month later, but the monsoon circulation becomes progressively stronger and reaches comparable strength during the mature phase. During the mature and decaying phase of monsoon (July–September), when westerly winds over the Southern Tibetan Plateau almost disappear, monsoon circulation strength is not much affected by the presence of the Tibetan Plateau.

A dry dynamical core with east–west-oriented narrow mountains in the subtropics consistently simulates downstream convergence with background zonal westerlies over the mountain. In a moist atmosphere, the mechanically driven downstream convergence is expected to be associated with significant moisture convergence. The authors speculate that the mechanically driven downstream convergence in the presence of the Tibetan Plateau is responsible for zonally asymmetric monsoon onset, particularly over the Bay of Bengal and South China.

Full access
Hyo-Seok Park, Andrew L. Stewart, and Jun-Hyeok Son

Abstract

Arctic summer sea ice extent exhibits substantial interannual variability, as is highlighted by the remarkable recovery in sea ice extent in 2013 following the record minimum in the summer of 2012. Here, the mechanism via which Arctic Oscillation (AO)-induced ice thickness changes impact summer sea ice is explored, using observations and reanalysis data. A positive AO weakens the basin-scale anticyclonic sea ice drift and decreases the winter ice thickness by 15 and 10 cm in the Eurasian and the Pacific sectors of the Arctic, respectively. Three reanalysis datasets show that the upward surface heat fluxes are reduced over wide areas of the Arctic, suppressing the ice growth during the positive AO winters. The winter dynamic and thermodynamic thinning preconditions the ice for enhanced radiative forcing via the ice–albedo feedback in late spring–summer, leading to an additional 10 cm of thinning over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. Because of these winter AO-induced dynamic and thermodynamics effects, the winter AO explains about 22% (r = −0.48) of the interannual variance of September sea ice extent from 1980 to 2015.

Full access
Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Seok-Woo Son, Steven B. Feldstein, and Yu Kosaka

Abstract

The surface warming in recent decades has been most rapid in the Arctic, especially during the winter. Here, by utilizing global reanalysis and satellite datasets, it is shown that the northward flux of moisture into the Arctic during the winter strengthens the downward infrared radiation (IR) by 30–40 W m−2 over 1–2 weeks. This is followed by a decline of up to 10% in sea ice concentration over the Greenland, Barents, and Kara Seas. A climate model simulation indicates that the wind-induced sea ice drift leads the decline of sea ice thickness during the early stage of the strong downward IR events, but that within one week the cumulative downward IR effect appears to be dominant. Further analysis indicates that strong downward IR events are preceded several days earlier by enhanced convection over the tropical Indian and western Pacific Oceans. This finding suggests that sea ice predictions can benefit from an improved understanding of tropical convection and ensuing planetary wave dynamics.

Full access
Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Yu Kosaka, Seok-Woo Son, and Sang-Woo Kim

Abstract

The Arctic summer sea ice area has been rapidly decreasing in recent decades. In addition to this trend, substantial interannual variability is present, as is highlighted by the recovery in sea ice area in 2013 following the record minimum in 2012. This interannual variability of the Arctic summer sea ice area has been attributed to the springtime weather disturbances. Here, by utilizing reanalysis- and satellite-based sea ice data, this study shows that summers with unusually small sea ice area are preceded by winters with anomalously strong downward longwave radiation over the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean. This anomalous wintertime radiative forcing at the surface is up to 10–15 W m−2, which is about twice as strong than that during the spring. During the same winters, the poleward moisture and warm-air intrusions into the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean are anomalously strong and the resulting moisture convergence field closely resembles positive anomalies in column-integrated water vapor and tropospheric temperature.

Climate model simulations support the above-mentioned findings and further show that the anomalously strong wintertime radiative forcing can decrease sea ice thickness over wide areas of the Arctic Ocean, especially over the Eurasian sector. During the winters preceding the anomalously small summer sea ice area, the upper ocean of the model is anomalously warm over the Barents Sea, indicating that the upper-ocean heat content contributes to winter sea ice thinning. Finally, mass divergence by ice drift in the preceding winter and spring contributes to the thinning of sea ice over the East Siberian and Chukchi Seas, where radiative forcing and upper-ocean heat content anomalies are relatively weak.

Full access
Junsu Kim, Seok-Woo Son, Edwin P. Gerber, and Hyo-Seok Park

Abstract

A sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) is often defined as zonal-mean zonal wind reversal at 10 hPa and 60°N. This simple definition has been applied not only to the reanalysis data but also to climate model output. In the present study, it is shown that the application of this definition to models can be significantly influenced by model mean biases (i.e., more frequent SSWs appear to occur in models with a weaker climatological polar vortex). To overcome this deficiency, a tendency-based definition is proposed and applied to the multimodel datasets archived for phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In this definition, SSW-like events are defined by sufficiently strong vortex deceleration. This approach removes a linear relationship between SSW frequency and intensity of the climatological polar vortex in the CMIP5 models. The models’ SSW frequency instead becomes significantly correlated with the climatological upward wave flux at 100 hPa, a measure of interaction between the troposphere and stratosphere. Lower stratospheric wave activity and downward propagation of stratospheric anomalies to the troposphere are also reasonably well captured. However, in both definitions, the high-top models generally exhibit more frequent SSWs than the low-top models. Moreover, a hint of more frequent SSWs in a warm climate is found in both definitions.

Full access
Kyong-Hwam Seo, Jun-Hyeok Son, June-Yi Lee, and Hyo-Seok Park

Abstract

This work provides a new perspective on the major factors controlling the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in July and a promising physical–statistical forecasting of the EASM ahead of summer. Dominant modes of the EASM are revealed from the variability of large-scale air masses discerned by equivalent potential temperature, and they are found to be dynamically connected with the anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the three major oceans of the world and their counterparts of prevailing atmospheric oscillation or teleconnection patterns. Precipitation over northern East Asia (NEA) during July is enhanced by the tropical central Indian Ocean warming and central Pacific El Niño–related SST warming, the northwestern Pacific cooling off the coast of NEA, and the North Atlantic Ocean warming. Using these factors and data from the preceding spring seasons, the authors build a multiple linear regression model for seasonal forecasting. The cross-validated correlation skill predicted for the period 1994 to 2012 is up to 0.84, which far exceeds the skill level of contemporary climate models.

Full access
Hyo-Seok Park, Benjamin R. Lintner, William R. Boos, and Kyong-Hwan Seo

Abstract

The strengthening of monsoonal southerlies over East Asia is associated with the westward intensification of the North Pacific subtropical high. Previous work has shown that the seasonal-mean position and strength of subtropical highs are affected by tropical and subtropical diabatic heating. Here it is shown that the synoptic-time-scale strengthening of southerlies over eastern China is dynamically tied to extratropical eddy activity. Composite analysis based on strong southerly wind events highlights an antecedent baroclinic wave train propagating southeastward into eastern China from extratropical central Asia. This wave train generates quasigeostrophic ascent over eastern China that is associated with heavy precipitation. The anomalously cold upper-tropospheric conditions associated with the wave train decrease static stability throughout the lower and middle troposphere in eastern China, while low-level moistening enhances equivalent potential temperature. It is proposed that the resulting reductions in dry and moist static stability intensify the eddy-induced precipitating ascent. These results illustrate how East Asian monsoon circulation and precipitation can be enhanced by the interaction of midlatitude baroclinic waves with the moist subtropical monsoon region.

Full access