Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Ian Baker x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Catherine L. Muller, Andy Baker, Ian J. Fairchild, Chris Kidd, and Ian Boomer

Abstract

Annual, monthly, and daily analyses of stable isotopes in precipitation are commonly made worldwide, yet only a few studies have explored the variations occurring on short time scales within individual precipitation events, particularly at midlatitude locations. This study examines hydrogen isotope data from sequential, intra-event samples from 16 precipitation events during different seasons and a range of synoptic conditions over an 18-month period in Birmingham, United Kingdom. Precipitation events were observed simultaneously using a vertically pointing micro rain radar (MRR), which, for the first time at a midlatitude location, allowed high-resolution examination of the microphysical characteristics (e.g., rain rate, fall velocity, and drop size distributions) that may influence the local isotopic composition of rainwater. The range in the hydrogen isotope ratio (δD, where D refers to deuterium) in 242 samples during 16 events was from −87.0‰ to +9.2‰, while the largest variation observed in a single event was 55.4‰. In contrast to previous work, the results indicate that some midlatitude precipitation events do indeed show significant intra-event trends that are strongly influenced by precipitation processes and parameters such as rain rate, melting-level height, and droplet sizes. Inverse relationships between rain rate and isotopic composition are observed, representing an example of a local type of “amount effect,” a still poorly understood process occurring at different scales. For these particular events, the mean δ value may therefore not provide all the relevant information. This work has significance for the testing and development of isotope-enabled cloud-resolving models and land surface models at higher resolutions, and it provides improved insights into a range of environmental processes that are influenced by subsampled precipitation events.

Full access
Anna Harper, Ian T. Baker, A. Scott Denning, David A. Randall, Donald Dazlich, and Mark Branson

Abstract

Moisture recycling can be an important source of rainfall over the Amazon forest, but this process relies heavily upon the ability of plants to access soil moisture. Evapotranspiration (ET) in the Amazon is often maintained or even enhanced during the dry season, when net radiation is high. However, ecosystem models often over predict the dry season water stress. The authors removed unrealistic water stress in an ecosystem model [the Simple Biosphere Model, version 3 (SiB3)] and examined the impacts of enhanced ET on the dry season climate when coupled to a GCM. The “stressed” model experiences dry season water stress and limitations on ET, while the “unstressed” model has enhanced root water access and exhibits strong drought tolerance.

During the dry season in the southeastern Amazon, SiB3 unstressed has significantly higher latent heat flux (LH) and lower sensible heat flux (SH) than SiB3 stressed. There are two competing impacts on the climate in SiB3 unstressed: cooling resulting from lower SH and moistening resulting from higher LH. During the average dry season, the cooling plays a larger role and the atmosphere is more statically stable, resulting in less precipitation than in SiB3 stressed. During dry season droughts, significantly higher LH in SiB3 unstressed is a necessary but not sufficient condition for stronger precipitation. The moistening effect of LH dominates when the Bowen ratio (BR = SH/LH) is >1.0 in SiB3 stressed and precipitation is up to 26% higher in SiB3 unstressed. An implication of this analysis is that forest conservation could enable the Amazon to cope with drying conditions in the future.

Full access
Yongjiu Dai, Xubin Zeng, Robert E. Dickinson, Ian Baker, Gordon B. Bonan, Michael G. Bosilovich, A. Scott Denning, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Paul R. Houser, Guoyue Niu, Keith W. Oleson, C. Adam Schlosser, and Zong-Liang Yang

The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment of the mass of liquid water and ice water and their phase change within the snow and soil system; a runoff parameterization following the TOPMODEL concept; a canopy photo synthesis-conductance model that describes the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation; and a tiled treatment of the subgrid fraction of energy and water balance. CLM has been extensively evaluated in offline mode and coupling runs with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). The results of two offline runs, presented as examples, are compared with observations and with the simulation of three other land models [the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Bonan's Land Surface Model (LSM), and the 1994 version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics LSM (IAP94)].

Full access
Kenneth J. Davis, Edward V. Browell, Sha Feng, Thomas Lauvaux, Michael D. Obland, Sandip Pal, Bianca C. Baier, David F. Baker, Ian T. Baker, Zachary R. Barkley, Kevin W. Bowman, Yu Yan Cui, A. Scott Denning, Joshua P. DiGangi, Jeremy T. Dobler, Alan Fried, Tobias Gerken, Klaus Keller, Bing Lin, Amin R. Nehrir, Caroline P. Normile, Christopher W. O’Dell, Lesley E. Ott, Anke Roiger, Andrew E. Schuh, Colm Sweeney, Yaxing Wei, Brad Weir, Ming Xue, and Christopher A. Williams

Abstract

The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT)-America NASA Earth Venture Suborbital Mission set out to improve regional atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) inversions by exploring the intersection of the strong GHG fluxes and vigorous atmospheric transport that occurs within the midlatitudes. Two research aircraft instrumented with remote and in situ sensors to measure GHG mole fractions, associated trace gases, and atmospheric state variables collected 1,140.7 flight hours of research data, distributed across 305 individual aircraft sorties, coordinated within 121 research flight days, and spanning five 6-week seasonal flight campaigns in the central and eastern United States. Flights sampled 31 synoptic sequences, including fair-weather and frontal conditions, at altitudes ranging from the atmospheric boundary layer to the upper free troposphere. The observations were complemented with global and regional GHG flux and transport model ensembles. We found that midlatitude weather systems contain large spatial gradients in GHG mole fractions, in patterns that were consistent as a function of season and altitude. We attribute these patterns to a combination of regional terrestrial fluxes and inflow from the continental boundaries. These observations, when segregated according to altitude and air mass, provide a variety of quantitative insights into the realism of regional CO2 and CH4 fluxes and atmospheric GHG transport realizations. The ACT-America dataset and ensemble modeling methods provide benchmarks for the development of atmospheric inversion systems. As global and regional atmospheric inversions incorporate ACT-America’s findings and methods, we anticipate these systems will produce increasingly accurate and precise subcontinental GHG flux estimates.

Full access