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Ian M. Brooks

Abstract

Several recent studies have utilized a Haar wavelet covariance transform to provide automated detection of the boundary layer top from lidar backscatter profiles by locating the maximum in the covariance profiles. This approach is effective where the vertical gradient in the backscatter is small within and above the boundary layer, and where the inversion is sharp and well defined. These near-ideal conditions are often not met, particularly under stable stratification where the inversion may be deep and is sometimes ill defined, and vertical gradients are common. Here the effects of vertical gradients and inversion depth on the covariance transform are examined. It is found that a significant dilation-dependent bias in the determination of the boundary layer top may result when using the published method. An alternative approach is developed utilizing multiple wavelet dilations, and is capable of identifying both the upper and lower limits of the backscatter transition zone associated with the inversion while remaining insensitive to mean vertical gradients in the background signal. This approach enables more detailed information on the small-scale structure of the inversion and entrainment zone to be retrieved than is possible using existing techniques.

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Ian M. Brooks

Abstract

A method for determining the angular offsets between measurement axes for multiple motion sensing systems and a sonic anemometer using underway data is demonstrated. This enables a single angular rate sensor to be used with spatially separated accelerometers, collocated with sonic anemometers, for the motion correction of turbulence measurements on a mobile platform such as a ship. Effective motion correction of turbulence measurements at sea is demonstrated. The errors in instrument alignment are considered, and estimates are made of the resulting biases in wind stress estimates.

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Ian M. Brooks and David P. Rogers

Abstract

Large-scale horizontal rolls can have a significant influence on turbulent transport across the atmospheric boundary layer. The formation and maintenance of such rolls is dependent on the thermal and dynamic stability of the boundary layer (BL). The authors present aircraft observations of boundary layers, both with and without roll circulations, off the coast of California. The contribution of the rolls to the turbulent fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum, and the variances of the three velocity components are determined for four cases. The fractional roll contributions to the u and w variances, and the sensible heat and along-wind momentum fluxes, show a near linear increase with altitude, from less than 10% at 30 m to more than 70% at the top of the BL. The variance in υ and crosswind momentum flux are more scattered, although the variance shows a slight increase with altitude from about 40% to 60%. The latent heat flux also shows a great deal of scatter, especially in the lower third of the BL where the total flux is small; above this, values range between about 40% and 85% but show no clear trends. A stability parameter in the form of a bulk Richardson Ri number is calculated for each of 13 profiles through the boundary layer; it is found that the Richardson number successfully identifies those cases where rolls are present, and its value corresponds to some extent with the strength of the rolls. Values close to zero correspond to cases with well-defined rolls; for 0.1 < Ri < 0.25 rolls are found to exist, but they tend to be weak and patchy; and no rolls are found where Ri is greater than the critical value of approximately 0.25. Reynolds numbers are calculated from a number of different definitions and indicate the dynamic instability of the shear dominated boundary layers.

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Ian M. Brooks, Andreas K. Goroch, and David P. Rogers

Abstract

Ducting of microwave radiation is a common phenomenon over the oceans. The height and strength of the duct are controlling factors for radar propagation and must be determined accurately to assess propagation ranges. A surface evaporation duct commonly forms due to the large gradient in specific humidity just above the sea surface; a deeper surface-based or elevated duct frequently is associated with the sudden change in temperature and humidity across the boundary layer inversion.

In April 1996 the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules research aircraft took part in the U.S. Navy Ship Antisubmarine Warfare Readiness/Effectiveness Measuring exercise (SHAREM-115) in the Persian Gulf by providing meteorological support and making measurements for the study of electromagnetic and electro-optical propagation. The boundary layer structure over the Gulf is influenced strongly by the surrounding desert landmass. Warm dry air flows from the desert over the cooler waters of the Gulf. Heat loss to the surface results in the formation of a stable internal boundary layer. The layer evolves continuously along wind, eventually forming a new marine atmospheric boundary layer. The stable stratification suppresses vertical mixing, trapping moisture within the layer and leading to an increase in refractive index and the formation of a strong boundary layer duct. A surface evaporation duct coexists with the boundary layer duct.

In this paper the authors present aircraft- and ship-based observations of both the surface evaporation and boundary layer ducts. A series of sawtooth aircraft profiles map the boundary layer structure and provide spatially distributed estimates of the duct depth. The boundary layer duct is found to have considerable spatial variability in both depth and strength, and to evolve along wind over distances significant to naval operations (∼100 km). The depth of the evaporation duct is derived from a bulk parameterization based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory using near-surface data taken by the C-130 during low-level (30 m) flight legs and by ship-based instrumentation. Good agreement is found between the two datasets. The estimated evaporation ducts are found to be generally uniform in depth; however, localized regions of greatly increased depth are observed on one day, and a marked change in boundary layer structure resulting in merging of the surface evaporation duct with the deeper boundary layer duct was observed on another. Both of these cases occurred within exceptionally shallow boundary layers (⩽100 m), where the mean evaporation duct depths were estimated to be between 12 and 17 m. On the remaining three days the boundary layer depth was between 200 and 300 m, and evaporation duct depths were estimated to be between 20 and 35 m, varying by just a few meters over ranges of up to 200 km.

The one-way radar propagation factor is modeled for a case with a pronounced change in duct depth. The case is modeled first with a series of measured profiles to define as accurately as possible the refractivity structure of the boundary layer, then with a single profile collocated with the radar antenna and assuming homogeneity. The results reveal large errors in the propagation factor when derived from a single profile.

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Martin K. Hill, Barbara J. Brooks, Sarah J. Norris, Michael H. Smith, Ian M. Brooks, and Gerrit de Leeuw

Abstract

The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) is an optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring size-resolved particle concentrations in 16 user-defined size bins spanning diameters in the range 0.24 < D < 18.5 μm at a rate of 10 Hz. The combination of its compact nature and lightweight and robust build allows for deployment in environments and locations where the use of the larger, heavier, more traditional instrumentation would prove awkward or impossible. The high temporal resolution means it is particularly suited to direct measurements of aerosol fluxes via the eddy covariance technique. CLASP has been through an extended evolutionary development. This has resulted in an instrument whose performance characteristics are well established.

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Primary Marine Aerosol Fluxes

Progress and Priorities

Ian M. Brooks, Edgar L Andreas, Gordon McFiggans, Magdalena D. Anguelova, and Colin O'Dowd

No Abstract available.

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Michael Tjernström, Matthew D. Shupe, Ian M. Brooks, Peggy Achtert, John Prytherch, and Joseph Sedlar

Abstract

During the Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) in summer 2014 a weeklong period of warm-air advection over melting sea ice, with the formation of a strong surface temperature inversion and dense fog, was observed. Based on an analysis of the surface energy budget, we formulated the hypothesis that, because of the airmass transformation, additional surface heating occurs during warm-air intrusions in a zone near the ice edge. To test this hypothesis, we explore all cases with surface inversions occurring during ACSE and then characterize the inversions in detail. We find that they always occur with advection from the south and are associated with subsidence. Analyzing only inversion cases over sea ice, we find two categories: one with increasing moisture in the inversion and one with constant or decreasing moisture with height. During surface inversions with increasing moisture with height, an extra 10–25 W m−2 of surface heating was observed, compared to cases without surface inversions; the surface turbulent heat flux was the largest single term. Cases with less moisture in the inversion were often cloud free and the extra solar radiation plus the turbulent surface heat flux caused by the inversion was roughly balanced by the loss of net longwave radiation.

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Ewan J. O’Connor, Anthony J. Illingworth, Ian M. Brooks, Christopher D. Westbrook, Robin J. Hogan, Fay Davies, and Barbara J. Brooks

Abstract

A method of estimating dissipation rates from a vertically pointing Doppler lidar with high temporal and spatial resolution has been evaluated by comparison with independent measurements derived from a balloon-borne sonic anemometer. This method utilizes the variance of the mean Doppler velocity from a number of sequential samples and requires an estimate of the horizontal wind speed. The noise contribution to the variance can be estimated from the observed signal-to-noise ratio and removed where appropriate. The relative size of the noise variance to the observed variance provides a measure of the confidence in the retrieval. Comparison with in situ dissipation rates derived from the balloon-borne sonic anemometer reveal that this particular Doppler lidar is capable of retrieving dissipation rates over a range of at least three orders of magnitude.

This method is most suitable for retrieval of dissipation rates within the convective well-mixed boundary layer where the scales of motion that the Doppler lidar probes remain well within the inertial subrange. Caution must be applied when estimating dissipation rates in more quiescent conditions. For the particular Doppler lidar described here, the selection of suitably short integration times will permit this method to be applicable in such situations but at the expense of accuracy in the Doppler velocity estimates. The two case studies presented here suggest that, with profiles every 4 s, reliable estimates of ε can be derived to within at least an order of magnitude throughout almost all of the lowest 2 km and, in the convective boundary layer, to within 50%. Increasing the integration time for individual profiles to 30 s can improve the accuracy substantially but potentially confines retrievals to within the convective boundary layer. Therefore, optimization of certain instrument parameters may be required for specific implementations.

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Sophia E. Brumer, Christopher J. Zappa, Ian M. Brooks, Hitoshi Tamura, Scott M. Brown, Byron W. Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

Abstract

Concurrent wavefield and turbulent flux measurements acquired during the Southern Ocean (SO) Gas Exchange (GasEx) and the High Wind Speed Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS) projects permit evaluation of the dependence of the whitecap coverage W on wind speed, wave age, wave steepness, mean square slope, and wind-wave and breaking Reynolds numbers. The W was determined from over 600 high-frequency visible imagery recordings of 20 min each. Wave statistics were computed from in situ and remotely sensed data as well as from a WAVEWATCH III hindcast. The first shipborne estimates of W under sustained 10-m neutral wind speeds U 10N of 25 m s−1 were obtained during HiWinGS. These measurements suggest that W levels off at high wind speed, not exceeding 10% when averaged over 20 min. Combining wind speed and wave height in the form of the wind-wave Reynolds number resulted in closely agreeing models for both datasets, individually and combined. These are also in good agreement with two previous studies. When expressing W in terms of wavefield statistics only or wave age, larger scatter is observed and/or there is little agreement between SO GasEx, HiWinGS, and previously published data. The wind speed–only parameterizations deduced from the SO GasEx and HiWinGS datasets agree closely and capture more of the observed W variability than Reynolds number parameterizations. However, these wind speed–only models do not agree as well with previous studies than the wind-wave Reynolds numbers.

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Georgia Sotiropoulou, Michael Tjernström, Joseph Sedlar, Peggy Achtert, Barbara J. Brooks, Ian M. Brooks, P. Ola G. Persson, John Prytherch, Dominic J. Salisbury, Matthew D. Shupe, Paul E. Johnston, and Dan Wolfe

Abstract

The Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) was conducted during summer and early autumn 2014, providing a detailed view of the seasonal transition from ice melt into freeze-up. Measurements were taken over both ice-free and ice-covered surfaces near the ice edge, offering insight into the role of the surface state in shaping the atmospheric conditions. The initiation of the autumn freeze-up was related to a change in air mass, rather than to changes in solar radiation alone; the lower atmosphere cooled abruptly, leading to a surface heat loss. During melt season, strong surface inversions persisted over the ice, while elevated inversions were more frequent over open water. These differences disappeared during autumn freeze-up, when elevated inversions persisted over both ice-free and ice-covered conditions. These results are in contrast to previous studies that found a well-mixed boundary layer persisting in summer and an increased frequency of surface-based inversions in autumn, suggesting that knowledge derived from measurements taken within the pan-Arctic area and on the central ice pack does not necessarily apply closer to the ice edge. This study offers an insight into the atmospheric processes that occur during a crucial period of the year; understanding and accurately modeling these processes is essential for the improvement of ice-extent predictions and future Arctic climate projections.

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