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Irving A. Singer

Abstract

In many atmospheric diffusion problems, a description of the steadiness of the wind direction is desired. For intervals of approximately an hour the mean wind direction is usually well defined and constant, but for longer intervals this may not be so, and a description of the variability of the mean direction with time is needed. It is proposed that the constancy of the wind, defined as the mean vector wind divided by the mean scalar wind /, can be used for simple classification purposes. A value of unity designates that the wind direction has not changed over the averaging period and a value of zero suggests a completely symmetrical distribution.

In this paper, a trigonometric transformation is used to linearize the variation of constancy with the mean angular range of direction. This function, called the “steadiness” S, is then computed for various time intervals, and by use of extreme-value theory the recurrence interval of various mean wind direction ranges can be predicted. This provides an important probability statement for air pollution evaluations.

Five years of data at Brookhaven National Laboratory have been analyzed for the following hourly intervals; 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384 and 720. The recurrence intervals of S with their associated meteorological conditions are presented for these periods and compared with similar studies of data from other stations.

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Irving A. Singer and Gilbert S. Raynor

In order to effect a more consistent grouping of hourly meteorological data influenced by the diurnal cycle, a chronology based on the time of sunrise and sunset was devised. A code classified all hours within each bi-weekly period by this time system. The classification was further extended by dividing the year into solar seasons, defined as periods of time during which the distribution of solar hours is uniform.

The use of solar time as a major classification in the analysis of two years of hourly wind and temperature data obtained from six levels on the 420-ft meteorological tower at Brookhaven National Laboratory resulted in a better understanding of the relationships between the variables than could have been obtained by the use of standard time. Results of several lapse-rate and wind-profile studies made using both standard and solar time demonstrated the advantage of the latter system. Application of this method to other problems and regions is discussed.

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Irving A. Singer and Maynard E. Smith

Abstract

Two years of data have been processed to show relationships between wind gustiness and other meteorological parameters. The gustiness classification used at Brookhaven National Laboratory is defined by the range and appearance of the horizontal wind direction trace. The seasonal and diurnal variations are presented. Gustiness is closely related to lapse rate and solar radiation, while its association with wind speed and Sutton's index of turbulence is not as distinct.

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Maynard E. Smith and Irving A. Singer

Abstract

The meteorological features of a refined air pollution evaluation technique are described. Time and space variations of wind speed, dispersion parameters and capping inversions are permitted, and it is believed that the estimates of dispersion at large distances from the source are more realistic than those obtained with simple models.

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Irving A. Singer and Peter C. Freudenthal
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