Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Ivana Stiperski x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Vanda Grubišić and Ivana Stiperski

Abstract

Lee-wave resonance over double bell-shaped obstacles is investigated through a series of idealized high-resolution numerical simulations with the nonhydrostatic Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model using a free-slip lower boundary condition. The profiles of wind speed and stability as well as terrain derive from observations of lee-wave events over the Sierra Nevada and Inyo Mountains from the recently completed Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX).

Numerical experiments show that double bell-shaped obstacles promote trapped lee waves that are in general shorter than those excited by an isolated ridge. While the permissible trapped lee-wave modes are determined by the upstream atmospheric structure, primarily vertical wind shear, the selected lee-wave wavelengths for two obstacles that are close or equal in height are dictated by the discrete terrain spectrum and correspond to higher harmonics of the primary orographic wavelength, which is equal to the ridge separation distance. The exception is the smallest ridge separation distance examined, one that corresponds to the Owens Valley width and is closest to the wavelength determined by the given upstream atmospheric structure, for which the primary lee-wave and orographic wavelengths were found to nearly coincide.

The influence two mountains exert on the overall lee-wave field is found to persist at very large ridge separation distances. For the nonlinear nonhydrostatic waves examined, the ridge separation distance is found to exert a much stronger control over the lee-wave wavelengths than the mountain half-width. Positive and negative interferences of lee waves, which can be detected through their imprint on wave drag and wave amplitudes, were found to produce appreciable differences in the flow structure mainly over the downstream peak, with negative interference characterized by a highly symmetric flow pattern leading to a low drag state.

Full access
Ivana Stiperski and Vanda Grubišić

Abstract

Trapped lee wave interference over double bell-shaped obstacles in the presence of surface friction is examined. Idealized high-resolution numerical experiments with the nonhydrostatic Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) are performed to examine the influence of a frictional boundary layer and nonlinearity on wave interference and the impact of interference on wave-induced boundary layer separation and the formation of rotors.

The appearance of constructive and destructive interference, controlled by the ratio of the ridge separation distance to the intrinsic horizontal wavelength of lee waves, is found to be predicted well by linear interference theory with orographic adjustment. The friction-induced shortening of intrinsic wavelength displays a strong indirect effect on wave interference. For twin peak orography, the interference-induced variation of wave amplitude is smaller than that predicted by linear theory. The interference is found to affect the formation and strength of rotors most significantly in the lee of the downstream peak; destructive interference suppresses the formation and strength of rotors there, whereas results for constructive interference closely parallel those for a single mountain. Over the valley, under both constructive and destructive interference, rotors are weaker compared to those in the lee of a single ridge while their strength saturates in the finite-amplitude flow regime.

Destructive interference is found to be more susceptible to nonlinear effects, with both the orographic adjustment and surface friction displaying a stronger effect on the flow in this state. “Complete” destructive interference, in which waves almost completely cancel out in the lee of the downstream ridge, develops for certain ridge separation distances but only for a downstream ridge smaller than the upstream one.

Full access
Ivana Stiperski and Vanda Grubišić
Full access
Brigitta Goger, Mathias W. Rotach, Alexander Gohm, Ivana Stiperski, Oliver Fuhrer, and Guy de Morsier

Abstract

The correct simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in highly complex terrain is a challenge for mesoscale numerical weather prediction models. An improvement in model performance is possible if horizontal contributions to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) production, such as horizontal shear production, are implemented in the model’s turbulence parameterization. However, 3D turbulence parameterizations often only have a constant horizontal length scale that depends on the horizontal grid spacing. This is unphysical for mesoscale applications, because such parameterizations were initially developed for much smaller model grid spacings (e.g., for large-eddy simulations). In this study, we develop a new physically based horizontal length scale for the high-resolution mesoscale model COSMO. We analyze days dominated by thermally driven circulations (valley wind days) in the Inn Valley, Austria. Results show that the new horizontal length scale improves TKE simulations in the valley, when horizontal shear processes contribute to the overall TKE budget. Vertical profiles of TKE and transects across the valley indicate that the model simulates the ABL in a more realistic way than standard turbulence schemes, because the new scheme is able to account for terrain inhomogeneities. A model validation with 88 stations in Austria for four case study days indicates no change in the mean surface fields of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed by the new turbulence parameterization.

Open access
Mathias W. Rotach, Ivana Stiperski, Oliver Fuhrer, Brigitta Goger, Alexander Gohm, Friedrich Obleitner, Gabriele Rau, Eleni Sfyri, and Johannes Vergeiner

Abstract

The flow and turbulence structure in the atmospheric boundary layer over complex mountainous terrain determines Earth–atmosphere interaction, that is, the exchange of energy, mass, and momentum between the surface over such terrain and the free atmosphere. Numerical models for weather and climate, even when operated at high or very high grid resolution, are known to be deficient, leading to inaccurate local forecasts (weather) or scenarios (climate). The nature and reasons for these deficiencies, however, are difficult to assess because systematic and long-term combined observational/modeling studies in mountainous terrain are missing. The Innsbruck Box (i-Box) project aims at filling in this gap through a network of long-term turbulence sites in truly complex terrain, complemented by similarly continuous (surface based) remote sensing and numerical modeling at high to highest [i.e., large-eddy simulation (LES)] resolution. This contribution details the i-Box approach, the experimental design, and available data, as well as the numerical modeling strategy. The first scientific highlights are presented to illustrate the potential of the i-Box data pool and possible future directions.

Full access
Georg j. Mayr, David Plavcan, Laurence Armi, Andrew Elvidge, Branko Grisogono, Kristian Horvath, Peter Jackson, Alfred Neururer, Petra Seibert, James W. Steenburgh, Ivana Stiperski, Andrew Sturman, Željko Večenaj, Johannes Vergeiner, Simon Vosper, and Günther Zängl

Abstract

Strong winds crossing elevated terrain and descending to its lee occur over mountainous areas worldwide. Winds fulfilling these two criteria are called foehn in this paper although different names exist depending on the region, the sign of the temperature change at onset, and the depth of the overflowing layer. These winds affect the local weather and climate and impact society. Classification is difficult because other wind systems might be superimposed on them or share some characteristics. Additionally, no unanimously agreed-upon name, definition, nor indications for such winds exist. The most trusted classifications have been performed by human experts. A classification experiment for different foehn locations in the Alps and different classifier groups addressed hitherto unanswered questions about the uncertainty of these classifications, their reproducibility, and dependence on the level of expertise. One group consisted of mountain meteorology experts, the other two of master’s degree students who had taken mountain meteorology courses, and a further two of objective algorithms. Sixty periods of 48 h were classified for foehn–no foehn conditions at five Alpine foehn locations. The intra-human-classifier detection varies by about 10 percentage points (interquartile range). Experts and students are nearly indistinguishable. The algorithms are in the range of human classifications. One difficult case appeared twice in order to examine the reproducibility of classified foehn duration, which turned out to be 50% or less. The classification dataset can now serve as a test bed for automatic classification algorithms, which—if successful—eliminate the drawbacks of manual classifications: lack of scalability and reproducibility.

Open access
James D. Doyle, Saša Gaberšek, Qingfang Jiang, Ligia Bernardet, John M. Brown, Andreas Dörnbrack, Elmar Filaus, Vanda Grubišić, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, Oswald Knoth, Steven Koch, Juerg Schmidli, Ivana Stiperski, Simon Vosper, and Shiyuan Zhong

Abstract

Numerical simulations of flow over steep terrain using 11 different nonhydrostatic numerical models are compared and analyzed. A basic benchmark and five other test cases are simulated in a two-dimensional framework using the same initial state, which is based on conditions during Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 6 of the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX), in which intense mountain-wave activity was observed. All of the models use an identical horizontal resolution of 1 km and the same vertical resolution. The six simulated test cases use various terrain heights: a 100-m bell-shaped hill, a 1000-m idealized ridge that is steeper on the lee slope, a 2500-m ridge with the same terrain shape, and a cross-Sierra terrain profile. The models are tested with both free-slip and no-slip lower boundary conditions.

The results indicate a surprisingly diverse spectrum of simulated mountain-wave characteristics including lee waves, hydraulic-like jump features, and gravity wave breaking. The vertical velocity standard deviation is twice as large in the free-slip experiments relative to the no-slip simulations. Nevertheless, the no-slip simulations also exhibit considerable variations in the wave characteristics. The results imply relatively low predictability of key characteristics of topographically forced flows such as the strength of downslope winds and stratospheric wave breaking. The vertical flux of horizontal momentum, which is a domain-integrated quantity, exhibits considerable spread among the models, particularly for the experiments with the 2500-m ridge and Sierra terrain. The differences among the various model simulations, all initialized with identical initial states, suggest that model dynamical cores may be an important component of diversity for the design of mesoscale ensemble systems for topographically forced flows. The intermodel differences are significantly larger than sensitivity experiments within a single modeling system.

Full access