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J-C. Calvet and Y. Viswanadham

Abstract

The top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation is determined over the Ducke Reserve Forest site, Manaus, Brazil (2°57 S, 59°57 W), from GOES-7 visible and infrared data during the 1987 wet season (April–May), for 0900 and 1500 LST. It is shown that a very good correlation exists between the top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation and the net radiation measured at the surface.

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J-C. Calvet, J. Noilhan, and P. Bessemoulin

Abstract

The bulk soil water content must be estimated accurately for short- and medium-term meteorological modeling. A method is proposed to retrieve the total soil moisture content as well as the field capacity from observed surface parameters such as surface soil moisture or surface temperature. A continuous series of micrometeorological and soil water content measurements was obtained in southwestern France over a fallow site in 1995. In addition, the database includes measurements of the surface temperature and soil moisture profiles within the top 5-cm soil layer. The surface soil moisture measurements are available twice a day during two 30-day intensive observing periods in spring and autumn 1995. Once calibrated, the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere) surface scheme is able to properly simulate the measured surface variables and the bulk soil moisture. Then an assimilation technique is applied to analyze the field capacity and the total soil water content from the surface data. In particular, it is shown that knowing the atmospheric forcing and the precipitation, four or five estimations of the surface soil moisture spread out over a 15-day period are enough to retrieve the total soil water content by inverting ISBA. The use of the surface temperature seems more problematic because its sensitivity to the value of the total water content is meaningful in relatively dry conditions only.

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D. Carrer, S. Lafont, J.-L. Roujean, J.-C. Calvet, C. Meurey, P. Le Moigne, and I. F. Trigo

Abstract

The Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) project radiation fluxes, derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite, were used in the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model (LSM), which is a component of the Surface Externalisée (SURFEX) modeling platform. The Système d’Analyze Fournissant des Renseignements Atmosphériques à la Neige (SAFRAN) atmospheric analysis provides high-resolution atmospheric variables used to drive LSMs over France. The impact of using the incoming solar and infrared radiation fluxes [downwelling surface shortwave (DSSF) and longwave (DSLF), respectively] from either SAFRAN or LSA SAF, in ISBA, was investigated over France for 2006. In situ observations from the Flux Network (FLUXNET) were used for the verification. Daily differences between SAFRAN and LSA SAF radiation fluxes averaged over the whole year 2006 were 3.75 and 2.61 W m−2 for DSSF and DSLF, respectively, representing 2.5% and 0.8% of their average values. The LSA SAF incoming solar radiation presented a better agreement with in situ measurements at six FLUXNET stations than the SAFRAN analysis. The bias and standard deviation of differences were reduced by almost 50%. The added value of the LSA SAF products was assessed with the simulated surface temperature, soil moisture, and the water and energy fluxes. The latter quantities were improved by the use of LSA SAF satellite estimates. As many areas lack a high-resolution meteorological analysis, the LSA SAF radiative products provide new and valuable information.

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S. Garrigues, A. Boone, B. Decharme, A. Olioso, C. Albergel, J.-C. Calvet, S. Moulin, S. Buis, and E. Martin

Abstract

This paper presents a comparison of two water transfer schemes implemented in land surface models: a three-layer bulk reservoir model based on the force–restore scheme (FR) and a multilayer soil diffusion scheme (DIF) relying on explicit mass‐diffusive equations and a root profile. The performances of each model at simulating evapotranspiration (ET) over a 14-yr Mediterranean crop succession are compared when the standard pedotransfer estimates versus the in situ values of the soil parameters are used. The Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) generic land surface model is employed. When the pedotransfer estimates of the soil parameters are used, the best performance scores are obtained with DIF. DIF provides more accurate simulations of soil evaporation and gravitational drainage. It is less sensitive to errors in the soil parameters compared to FR, which is strongly driven by the soil moisture at field capacity. When the in situ soil parameters are used, the performance of the FR simulations surpasses those of DIF. The use of the proper maximum available water content for the plant removes the bias in ET and soil moisture over the crop cycle with FR, while soil water stress is simulated too early and the transpiration is underestimated with DIF. Increasing the values of the root extinction coefficient and the proportion of homogeneous root distribution slightly improves the DIF performance scores. Spatiotemporal uncertainties in the soil parameters generate smaller uncertainties in ET simulated with DIF compared to FR, which highlights the robustness of DIF for large-scale applications.

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Z. Su, W. Timmermans, Y. Zeng, J. Schulz, V. O. John, R. A. Roebeling, P. Poli, D. Tan, F. Kaspar, A. K. Kaiser-Weiss, E. Swinnen, C. Toté, H. Gregow, T. Manninen, A. Riihelä, J.-C. Calvet, Y. Ma, and J. Wen

Abstract

The Coordinating Earth Observation Data Validation for Reanalysis for Climate Services project (CORE-CLIMAX) aimed to substantiate how Copernicus observations and products can contribute to climate change analyses. CORE-CLIMAX assessed the European capability to provide climate data records (CDRs) of essential climate variables (ECVs), prepared a structured process to derive CDRs, developed a harmonized approach for validating essential climate variable CDRs, identified the integration of CDRs into the reanalysis chain, and formulated a process to compare the results of different reanalysis techniques. With respect to the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S), the systematic application and further development of the CORE-CLIMAX system maturity matrix (SMM) and the spinoff application performance metric (APM) were strongly endorsed to be involved in future implementations of C3S. We concluded that many of the current CDRs are not yet sufficiently mature to be used in reanalysis or applied in climate studies. Thus, the production of consistent high-resolution data records remains a challenge that needs more research urgently. Extending ECVs to close climate cycle budgets (e.g., essential water variables) is a next step linking CDRs to sectoral applications.

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P. M. Ruti, S. Somot, F. Giorgi, C. Dubois, E. Flaounas, A. Obermann, A. Dell’Aquila, G. Pisacane, A. Harzallah, E. Lombardi, B. Ahrens, N. Akhtar, A. Alias, T. Arsouze, R. Aznar, S. Bastin, J. Bartholy, K. Béranger, J. Beuvier, S. Bouffies-Cloché, J. Brauch, W. Cabos, S. Calmanti, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carillo, D. Conte, E. Coppola, V. Djurdjevic, P. Drobinski, A. Elizalde-Arellano, M. Gaertner, P. Galàn, C. Gallardo, S. Gualdi, M. Goncalves, O. Jorba, G. Jordà, B. L’Heveder, C. Lebeaupin-Brossier, L. Li, G. Liguori, P. Lionello, D. Maciàs, P. Nabat, B. Önol, B. Raikovic, K. Ramage, F. Sevault, G. Sannino, M. V. Struglia, A. Sanna, C. Torma, and V. Vervatis

Abstract

The Mediterranean is expected to be one of the most prominent and vulnerable climate change “hotspots” of the twenty-first century, and the physical mechanisms underlying this finding are still not clear. Furthermore, complex interactions and feedbacks involving ocean–atmosphere–land–biogeochemical processes play a prominent role in modulating the climate and environment of the Mediterranean region on a range of spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, it is critical to provide robust climate change information for use in vulnerability–impact–adaptation assessment studies considering the Mediterranean as a fully coupled environmental system. The Mediterranean Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (Med-CORDEX) initiative aims at coordinating the Mediterranean climate modeling community toward the development of fully coupled regional climate simulations, improving all relevant components of the system from atmosphere and ocean dynamics to land surface, hydrology, and biogeochemical processes. The primary goals of Med-CORDEX are to improve understanding of past climate variability and trends and to provide more accurate and reliable future projections, assessing in a quantitative and robust way the added value of using high-resolution and coupled regional climate models. The coordination activities and the scientific outcomes of Med-CORDEX can produce an important framework to foster the development of regional Earth system models in several key regions worldwide.

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