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P. Ramamurthy, E. R. Pardyjak, and J. C. Klewicki

Abstract

Data obtained in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study have been analyzed to investigate the effects of upstream atmospheric stability on turbulence statistics in an urban core. The data presented include turbulent heat and momentum fluxes at various vertical and horizontal locations in the lower 30% of the street canyon. These data have been segregated into three broad stability classification regimes: stable (z/L > 0.2), neutral (−0.2 < z/L < 0.2), and unstable (z/L < −0.2) based on upstream measurements of the Monin–Obukhov length scale L. Most of the momentum-related turbulence statistics were insensitive to upstream atmospheric stability, while the energy-related statistics (potential temperatures and kinematic heat fluxes) were more sensitive. In particular, the local turbulence intensity inside the street canyon varied little with atmospheric stability but always had large magnitudes. Measurements of turbulent momentum fluxes indicate the existence of regions of upward transport of high horizontal momentum fluid near the ground that is associated with low-level jet structures for all stabilities. The turbulent kinetic energy normalized by a local shear stress velocity collapses the data well and shows a clear repeatable pattern that appears to be stability invariant. The magnitude of the normalized turbulent kinetic energy increases rapidly as the ground is approached. This behavior is a result of a much more rapid drop in the correlation between the horizontal and vertical velocities than in the velocity variances. This lack of correlation in the turbulent momentum fluxes is consistent with previous work in the literature. It was also observed that the mean potential temperatures almost always decrease with increasing height in the street canyon and that the vertical heat fluxes are always positive regardless of upstream atmospheric stability. In addition, mean potential temperature profiles are slightly more unstable during the unstable periods than during the neutral or stable periods. The magnitudes of all three components of the heat flux and the variability of the heat fluxes decrease with increasing atmospheric stability. In addition, the cross-canyon and along-canyon heat fluxes are as large as the vertical component of the heat fluxes in the lower portion of the canyon.

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, M. J. Brown, and J. C. Klewicki

Abstract

Velocity data were obtained within Park Avenue in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, using three-dimensional sonic anemometers under unstable atmospheric conditions. These data are used to produce velocity spectra, cospectra, and weighted joint probability density functions at various heights and horizontal locations in the street canyon. This analysis has helped to describe a number of physically interesting urban flow phenomena. Previous research has shown that the ratio of Reynolds shear stresses to normal stresses is typically much smaller deep within the canopy than those ratios found at the top of canopy and in the roughness sublayer. The turbulence in this region exhibits significant contributions to all four quadrants of a weighted joint-probability density function of horizontal and vertical velocity fluctuations, yielding the characteristic small Reynolds shear stresses in the flow. The velocity cospectra measured at the base of the canopy show evidence of discrete frequency bands of both positive and negative correlation that yield a small correlation, as indicated by the Reynolds shear stresses. Two major peaks were often observed in the spectra and cospectra: a low-frequency peak that appears to be associated with vortex shedding off the buildings and a midfrequency peak generally associated with canyon geometry. The low-frequency peak was found to produce a countergradient contribution to the along-wind vertical velocity covariance. Standard spectral tests for local isotropy indicate that isotropic conditions occur at different frequencies depending on spatial location, demonstrating the need to be thorough when testing for local isotropy with the urban canopy.

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, J. C. Klewicki, S. U. Pol, and M. J. Brown

Abstract

Velocity data were obtained from sonic anemometer measurements within an east–west-running street canyon located in the urban core of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign. These data were used to explore the directional dependence of the mean flow and turbulence within a real-world street canyon. The along-canyon vortex that is a key characteristic of idealized street canyon studies was not evident in the mean wind data, although the sensor placement was not optimized for the detection of such structures. Instead, surface wind measurements imply that regions of horizontal convergence and divergence exist within the canopy, which are likely caused by taller buildings diverting the winds aloft down into the canopy. The details of these processes appear to be dependent on relatively small perturbations in the prevailing wind direction. Turbulence intensities within the canyon interior appeared to have more dependence on prevailing wind direction than they did in the intersections. Turbulence in the intersections tended to be higher than was observed in the canyon interior. This behavior implies that there are some fundamental differences between the flow structure found in North American–style cities where building heights are typically heterogeneous and that found in European-style cities, which generally have more homogeneous building heights. It is hypothesized that the greater three-dimensionality caused by the heterogeneous building heights increases the ventilation of the urban canopy through mean advective transport as well as enhanced turbulence.

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