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J. D. Fuentes, D. Wang, and L. Gu

Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to understand the environmental and seasonal controls over isoprene emissions from a boreal forest ecosystem whose isoprene source came from trees of the same species and age. A further objective was to establish an annual budget of isoprene emitted from a remote boreal forest and thus assess uncertainties associated with seasonal isoprene emission inventories. The onset of isoprene emissions occurred two weeks after the forest attained its maximum leaf area. Scaled to the foliage level, averaged isoprene fluxes approached 10 ± 5 nmol m−2 s−1 in the spring. During the middle of the growing season averaged isoprene emissions amounted to 28 ± 4 nmol m−2 s−1, whereas late summer values reached 16 ± 2 mmol m−2 s−1. These isoprene capacities were normalized to 25°C and photosynthetically active radiation of 1000 μmol m−2 s−1. Given the strong seasonality observed in isoprene emissions, the authors propose to include seasonally adjusted emission rates to derive isoprene inventories for the entire foliage growing cycle. With an active biomass of 144 g m−2, using a seasonally adjusted emission rate in a one-dimensional multilayered model it is estimated that during 1994 the boreal aspen forest emitted 32 μmol of isoprene per square meter. Such isoprene source strength represented approximately 1% of the photosynthetically fixed carbon by the aspen forest. In addition to the seasonal controls dictated by the inherent plant metabolic activity, low temperatures (<10°C) strongly reduced the amplitude of diurnal isoprene emissions.

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L. Huber, P. Laville, and J. D. Fuentes

Abstract

Utilizing the concepts of localized near-field diffusion, a modeling system was developed to estimate isoprene emissions from foliage of a mixed deciduous forest. The model determined radiation disposition and foliage temperature inside the canopy using as input forcing variables measured above the forest. Such model outputs were then combined with an isoprene emission algorithm to estimate emissions from the forest ecosystem and thus assess uncertainties in inventory emissions. Under conditions of atmospheric stability, modeled temperature in the bottom half of the forest stand was overestimated by as much as 4°C. For unstable conditions modeled and measured temperatures agreed more closely, the model overestimating temperature by less than 2°C. Based on an uncertainty analysis, parameters exerting the greatest influence on calculated leaf temperature and light levels inside the forest included radiation extinction coefficients and the partitioning between sunlit and shaded leaves. The uncertainties associated with the estimation of isoprene forcing variables gave overestimated isoprene emissions of 30% compared to measurements during the middle of the growing season. To estimate seasonal isoprene emissions, two emission rates were considered. Using a constant emission rate representing middle of the growing season conditions, modeled isoprene flux densities were greater by a factor of 2 compared to gradient–diffusion-derived fluxes during the early part of the growing season. Once applied to the entire growing season, the estimated isoprene emissions were within 20% of measured quantities when seasonally adjusted emission rates were included in the flux calculations.

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J. D. Fuentes, D. D. Baldocchi, and B. Lamb
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S. K. Kaharabata, P. H. Schuepp, and J. D. Fuentes

Abstract

Above-canopy sampling of trace gases to determine volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions should be interpreted in terms of footprint considerations. This can be accomplished by defining the upwind canopy areas effectively sampled under the given wind and stability conditions. Using solutions of the advection–diffusion equation adjusted through controlled tracer gas (SF6) release experiments in the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study of 1994, sampling of VOC concentrations and fluxes over a forest whose VOC sources are heterogeneous (Camp Borden) are studied. Analysis demonstrates that the variability observed in measured VOC fluxes could be accounted for by varying numbers of randomly distributed clumps of emitter species within a varying footprint. It suggests that heterogeneity of the forest canopy, in terms of source distribution of VOCs, has to be explicitly considered in estimates of source strength from above-canopy concentration/flux sampling.

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C. Strong, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and A. K. Betts

Abstract

During the wet season in the southwestern Amazon region, daytime water transport out of the atmospheric mixed layer into the deeper atmosphere is shown to depend upon cloud amounts and types and synoptic-scale velocity fields. Interactions among clouds, convective conditions, and subcloud-layer properties were estimated for two dominant flow regimes observed during the 1999 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission component of the Brazilian Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere (TRMM-LBA) field campaign. During daytime the cloud and subcloud layers were coupled by radiative, convective, and precipitation processes. The properties of cloud and subcloud layers varied according to the different convective influences of easterly versus westerly lower-tropospheric flows. The most pronounced flow-regime effects on composite cloud cycles occurred under persistent lower-tropospheric flows, which produced strong convective cloud growth with a near absence of low-level stratiform clouds, minimal cumulative attenuation of incoming solar irradiance (∼25%), rapid daytime mixed-layer growth (>100 m h−1), and boundary layer drying (0.22 g kg−1 h−1), high convective velocities (>1.5 m s−1), high surface buoyancy flux (>200 W m−2), and high latent heat flux (600 W m−2) into cloud layer. In contrast, persistent westerly flows were less convective, showing a strong morning presence of low-level stratiform genera (>0.9 cloud amount), greater cumulative attenuation of incoming solar irradiance (∼47%), slower mixed-layer growth (<50 m h−1) with a slight tendency for mixed-layer moistening, and a delayed peak in the low-level cumuliform cloud cycle (2000 versus 1700 UTC). The results reported in this article indicate that numerical models need to account for cloud amounts and types when estimating water vapor transport to the cloud layer.

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J. D. Fuentes, M. Lerdau, R. Atkinson, D. Baldocchi, J. W. Bottenheim, P. Ciccioli, B. Lamb, C. Geron, L. Gu, A. Guenther, T. D. Sharkey, and W. Stockwell

Nonmethane hydrocarbons are ubiquitous trace atmospheric constituents yet they control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Both anthropogenic and biogenic processes contribute to the release of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. In this manuscript, the state of the science concerning biosynthesis, transport, and chemical transformation of hydrocarbons emitted by the terrestrial biosphere is reviewed. In particular, the focus is on isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The generated science during the last 10 years is reviewed to explain and quantify hydrocarbon emissions from vegetation and to discern impacts of biogenic hydrocarbons on local and regional atmospheric chemistry. Furthermore, the physiological and environmental processes controlling biosynthesis and production of hydrocarbon compounds are reported on. Many advances have been made on measurement and modeling approaches developed to quantify hydrocarbon emissions from leaves and forest ecosystems. A synthesis of the atmospheric chemistry of biogenic hydrocarbons and their role in the formation of oxidants and aerosols is presented. The integration of biogenic hydrocarbon kinetics and atmospheric physics into mathematical modeling systems is examined to assess the contribution of biogenic hydrocarbons to the formation of oxidants and aerosols, thereby allowing us to study their impacts on the earth's climate system and to develop strategies to reduce oxidant precursors in affected regions.

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F. Vitart, C. Ardilouze, A. Bonet, A. Brookshaw, M. Chen, C. Codorean, M. Déqué, L. Ferranti, E. Fucile, M. Fuentes, H. Hendon, J. Hodgson, H.-S. Kang, A. Kumar, H. Lin, G. Liu, X. Liu, P. Malguzzi, I. Mallas, M. Manoussakis, D. Mastrangelo, C. MacLachlan, P. McLean, A. Minami, R. Mladek, T. Nakazawa, S. Najm, Y. Nie, M. Rixen, A. W. Robertson, P. Ruti, C. Sun, Y. Takaya, M. Tolstykh, F. Venuti, D. Waliser, S. Woolnough, T. Wu, D.-J. Won, H. Xiao, R. Zaripov, and L. Zhang

Abstract

Demands are growing rapidly in the operational prediction and applications communities for forecasts that fill the gap between medium-range weather and long-range or seasonal forecasts. Based on the potential for improved forecast skill at the subseasonal to seasonal time range, the Subseasonal to Seasonal (S2S) Prediction research project has been established by the World Weather Research Programme/World Climate Research Programme. A main deliverable of this project is the establishment of an extensive database containing subseasonal (up to 60 days) forecasts, 3 weeks behind real time, and reforecasts from 11 operational centers, modeled in part on the The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) database for medium-range forecasts (up to 15 days).

The S2S database, available to the research community since May 2015, represents an important tool to advance our understanding of the subseasonal to seasonal time range that has been considered for a long time as a “desert of predictability.” In particular, this database will help identify common successes and shortcomings in the model simulation and prediction of sources of subseasonal to seasonal predictability. For instance, a preliminary study suggests that the S2S models significantly underestimate the amplitude of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) teleconnections over the Euro-Atlantic sector. The S2S database also represents an important tool for case studies of extreme events. For instance, a multimodel combination of S2S models displays higher probability of a landfall over the islands of Vanuatu 2–3 weeks before Tropical Cyclone Pam devastated the islands in March 2015.

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Dennis Baldocchi, Eva Falge, Lianhong Gu, Richard Olson, David Hollinger, Steve Running, Peter Anthoni, Ch. Bernhofer, Kenneth Davis, Robert Evans, Jose Fuentes, Allen Goldstein, Gabriel Katul, Beverly Law, Xuhui Lee, Yadvinder Malhi, Tilden Meyers, William Munger, Walt Oechel, K. T. Paw U, Kim Pilegaard, H. P. Schmid, Riccardo Valentini, Shashi Verma, Timo Vesala, Kell Wilson, and Steve Wofsy

FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long-term and continuous basis. Vegetation under study includes temperate conifer and broadleaved (deciduous and evergreen) forests, tropical and boreal forests, crops, grasslands, chaparral, wetlands, and tundra. Sites exist on five continents and their latitudinal distribution ranges from 70°N to 30°S.

FLUXNET has several primary functions. First, it provides infrastructure for compiling, archiving, and distributing carbon, water, and energy flux measurement, and meteorological, plant, and soil data to the science community. (Data and site information are available online at the FLUXNET Web site, http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET/.) Second, the project supports calibration and flux intercomparison activities. This activity ensures that data from the regional networks are intercomparable. And third, FLUXNET supports the synthesis, discussion, and communication of ideas and data by supporting project scientists, workshops, and visiting scientists. The overarching goal is to provide information for validating computations of net primary productivity, evaporation, and energy absorption that are being generated by sensors mounted on the NASA Terra satellite.

Data being compiled by FLUXNET are being used to quantify and compare magnitudes and dynamics of annual ecosystem carbon and water balances, to quantify the response of stand-scale carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities to controlling biotic and abiotic factors, and to validate a hierarchy of soil–plant–atmosphere trace gas exchange models. Findings so far include 1) net CO2 exchange of temperate broadleaved forests increases by about 5.7 g C m−2 day−1 for each additional day that the growing season is extended; 2) the sensitivity of net ecosystem CO2 exchange to sunlight doubles if the sky is cloudy rather than clear; 3) the spectrum of CO2 flux density exhibits peaks at timescales of days, weeks, and years, and a spectral gap exists at the month timescale; 4) the optimal temperature of net CO2 exchange varies with mean summer temperature; and 5) stand age affects carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities.

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M. Ades, R. Adler, Rob Allan, R. P. Allan, J. Anderson, Anthony Argüez, C. Arosio, J. A. Augustine, C. Azorin-Molina, J. Barichivich, J. Barnes, H. E. Beck, Andreas Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, David I. Berry, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier. Bock, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier. Boucher, S. A. Buehler, Laura. Carrea, Hanne H. Christiansen, F. Chouza, John R. Christy, E.-S. Chung, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Gil P. Compo, Owen R. Cooper, Curt Covey, A. Crotwell, Sean M. Davis, Elvira de Eyto, Richard A. M de Jeu, B.V. VanderSat, Curtis L. DeGasperi, Doug Degenstein, Larry Di Girolamo, Martin T. Dokulil, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, G. Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Richard A. Frey, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, J. Garforth, S. K. Gupta, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, Andrew K Heidinger, D. L. Hemming, Shu-peng (Ben) Ho, Daan Hubert, Dale F. Hurst, I. Hüser, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Viju John, Philip D. Jones, J. W. Kaiser, S. Kelly, S. Khaykin, R. Kidd, Hyungiun Kim, Z. Kipling, B. M. Kraemer, D. P. Kratz, R. S. La Fuente, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, T. Leblanc, Bailing Li, Norman G Loeb, Craig S. Long, Diego Loyola, Wlodzimierz Marszelewski, B. Martens, Linda May, Michael Mayer, M. F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, W. Paul Menzel, Christopher J. Merchant, Ben R. Miller, Diego G. Miralles, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, Jens Mühle, R. Myneni, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Tim J. Osborn, T. Park, A. Pasik, Andrew M. Paterson, Mauri S. Pelto, S. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, G. Pétron, C. Phillips, Bernard Pinty, S. Po-Chedley, L. Polvani, W. Preimesberger, M. Pulkkanen, W. J. Randel, Samuel Rémy, L. Ricciardulli, A. D. Richardson, L. Rieger, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, Karen H. Rosenlof, Chris Roth, A. Rozanov, James A. Rusak, O. Rusanovskaya, T. Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, P. Sawaengphokhai, T. Scanlon, Verena Schenzinger, S. Geoffey Schladow, R. W Schlegel, Eawag Schmid, Martin, H. B. Selkirk, S. Sharma, Lei Shi, S. V. Shimaraeva, E. A. Silow, Adrian J. Simmons, C. A. Smith, Sharon L Smith, B. J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, T. H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, G. Taha, Hagen Telg, S. J. Thackeray, M. A. Timofeyev, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald J. van der A, Robin, VanderSat B.V. van der Schalie, Gerard van der SchrierW. Paul, Guido R. van der Werf, Piet Verburg, Jean-Paul Vernier, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray Wang, Shohei G. Watanabe, Mark Weber, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, David Wiese, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Takmeng Wong, R. Iestyn Woolway, Xungang Yin, Lin Zhao, Guanguo Zhao, Xinjia Zhou, Jerry R. Ziemke, and Markus Ziese
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