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C. W. Fairall, J. E. Hare, and J. B. Snider

Abstract

As part of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment (FIRE), a surface meteorology and shortwave/longwave irradiance station was operated in a marine stratocumulus regime on the northwest tip of San Nicolas island off the coast of Southern California. Measurements were taken from March through October 1987, including a FIRE Intensive Field Operation (IFO) held in July. Algorithms were developed to use the longwave irradiance data to estimate fractional cloudiness and to use the shortwave irradiance to estimate cloud albedo and integrated cloud liquid water content. Cloud base height is estimated from computations of the lifting condensation level. The algorithms are tested against direct measurements made during the IFO; a 30% adjustment was made to the liquid water parameterization. The algorithms are then applied to the entire database. The stratocumulus clouds over the island are found to have a cloud base height of about 400 m, an integrated liquid water content of 75 gm−2, a fractional cloudiness of 0.95, and an albedo of 0.55. Integrated liquid water content rarely exceeds 350 g m−2 and albedo rarely exceeds 0.90 for stratocumulus clouds. Over the summer months, the average cloud fraction shows a maximum at sunrise of 0.74 and a minimum at sunset of 0.41. Over the same period, the average cloud albedo shows a maximum of 0.61 at sunrise and a minimum of 0.31 a few hours after local noon (although the estimate is more uncertain because of the extreme solar zenith angle). The use of joint frequency distributions of fractional cloudiness with solar transmittance or cloud base height to classify cloud types appears to be useful.

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J. B. Edson, A. A. Hinton, K. E. Prada, J. E. Hare, and C. W. Fairall

Abstract

This paper describes two methods for computing direct covariance fluxes from anemometers mounted on moving platforms at sea. These methods involve the use of either a strapped-down or gyro-stabilized system that are used to compute terms that correct for the 1) instantaneous tilt of the anemometer due to the pitch, roll, and heading variations of the platform; 2) angular velocities at the anemometer due to rotation of the platform about its local coordinate system axes; and 3) translational velocities of the platform with respect to a fixed frame of reference. The paper provides a comparison of fluxes computed with three strapped-down systems from two recent field experiments. These comparisons shows that the direct covariance fluxes are in good agreement with fluxes derived using the bulk aerodynamic method. Additional comparisons between the ship system and the research platform FLIP indicate that flow distortion systematically increases the momentum flux by 15%. Evidence suggests that this correction is appropriate for a commonly used class of research vessels. The application of corrections for both motion contamination and flow distortion results in direct covariance flux estimates with an uncertainty of approximately 10%–20%.

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C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. E. Hare, A. A. Grachev, and J. B. Edson

Abstract

In 1996, version 2.5 of the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) bulk algorithm was published, and it has become one of the most frequently used algorithms in the air–sea interaction community. This paper describes steps taken to improve the algorithm in several ways. The number of iterations to solve for stability has been shortened from 20 to 3, and adjustments have been made to the basic profile stability functions. The scalar transfer coefficients have been redefined in terms of the mixing ratio, which is the fundamentally conserved quantity, rather than the measured water vapor mass concentration. Both the velocity and scalar roughness lengths have been changed. For the velocity roughness, the original fixed value of the Charnock parameter has been replaced by one that increases with wind speeds of between 10 and 18 m s−1. The scalar roughness length parameterization has been simplified to fit both an early set of NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) experiments and the Humidity Exchange Over the Sea (HEXOS) program. These changes slightly increase the fluxes for wind speeds exceeding 10 m s−1. For interested users, two simple parameterizations of the surface gravity wave influence on fluxes have been added (but not evaluated).

This new version of the algorithm (COARE 3.0) was based on published results and 2777 1-h covariance flux measurements in the ETL inventory. To test it, 4439 new values from field experiments between 1997 and 1999 were added, which now dominate the database, especially in the wind speed regime beyond 10 m s−1, where the number of observations increased from 67 to about 800. After applying various quality controls, the database was used to evaluate the algorithm in several ways. For an overall mean, the algorithm agrees with the data to within a few percent for stress and latent heat flux. The agreement is also excellent when the bulk and directly measured fluxes are averaged in bins of 10-m neutral wind speed. For a more stringent test, the average 10-m neutral transfer coefficients were computed for stress and moisture in wind speed bins, using different averaging schemes with fairly similar results. The average (mean and median) model results agreed with the measurements to within about 5% for moisture from 0 to 20 m s−1. For stress, the covariance measurements were about 10% higher than the model at wind speeds over 15 m s−1, while inertial-dissipation measurements agreed closely at all wind speeds. The values for stress are between 8% (for inertial dissipation) and 18% (for covariance) higher at 20 m s−1 than two other classic results. Twenty years ago, bulk flux schemes were considered to be uncertain by about 30%; the authors find COARE 3.0 to be accurate within 5% for wind speeds of 0–10 m s−1 and 10% for wind speeds of between 10 and 20 m s−1.

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A. A. Grachev, C. W. Fairall, J. E. Hare, J. B. Edson, and S. D. Miller

Abstract

Previous investigations of the wind stress in the marine surface layer have primarily focused on determining the stress magnitude (momentum flux) and other scalar variables (e.g., friction velocity, drag coefficient, roughness length). However, the stress vector is often aligned with a direction different from that of the mean wind flow. In this paper, the focus is on the study of the stress vector direction relative to the mean wind and surface-wave directions. Results based on measurements made during three field campaigns onboard the R/P Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) in the Pacific are discussed. In general, the wind stress is a vector sum of the 1) pure shear stress (turbulent and viscous) aligned with the mean wind shear, 2) wind-wave-induced stress aligned with the direction of the pure wind-sea waves, and 3) swell-induced stress aligned with the swell direction. The direction of the wind-wave-induced stress and the swell-induced stress components may coincide with, or be opposite to, the direction of wave propagation (pure wind waves and swell, respectively). As a result, the stress vector may deviate widely from the mean wind flow, including cases in which stress is directed across or even opposite to the wind.

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C. W. Fairall, A. B. White, J. B. Edson, and J. E. Hare

Abstract

The NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory air–sea interaction group and collaborators at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have developed a seagoing measurement system suitable for mounting aboard ships. During its development, it was deployed on three different ships and recently completed three cruises in the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment as well as two cruises off the west coast of the United States. The system includes tower-mounted micrometeorological sensors for direct covariance flux measurements and a variety of remote sensors for profiling winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence. A sonic anemometer/thermometer and a fast-response infrared hygrometer are used for turbulent fluxes. Winds are obtained from a stabilized Doppler radar (wind profiler) and a Doppler sodar. Returned power and Doppler width from these systems are used to deduce profiles of small-scale turbulence. A lidar ceilometer and a microwave radiometer are used to obtain cloud properties. Radiative fluxes are measured with standard pyranometers and pyrgeometers. A conventional rawinsonde system gives intermittent reference soundings. The system is used to study surface fluxes, boundary layer dynamics, cloud–radiative interactions, and entrainment. It has also proven useful in satellite calibration/validations. Following a description of the systems and methods, various examples of data and results are given from recent deployments in the North Atlantic, off the United States west coast, and in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

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Hollis E. Pyatt, Bruce A. Albrecht, Chris Fairall, J. E. Hare, Nicholas Bond, Patrick Minnis, and J. Kirk Ayers

Abstract

The structure of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is influenced by spatial variations of sea surface temperature (SST) in the region. As the MABL air is advected across a strong SST gradient associated with the cold tongue–ITCZ complex (CTIC), substantial changes occur in the thermodynamic structure, surface fluxes, and cloud properties. This study attempts to define and explain the variability in the MABL structure and clouds over the CTIC. Using data collected on research cruises from the fall seasons of 1999–2001, composite soundings were created for both the cold and warm sides of the SST front to describe the mean atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure and its evolution across this front. The average difference in SST across this front was ∼6°C; much of this difference was concentrated in a band only ∼50 km wide. During the fall seasons, on the cold side of the gradient, a well-defined inversion exists in all years. Below this inversion, both fair-weather cumulus and stratiform clouds are observed. As the MABL air moves over the SST front to warmer waters, the inversion weakens and increases in height. The MABL also moistens and eventually supports deeper convection over the ITCZ. Both the latent and sensible heat fluxes increase dramatically across the SST front because of both an increase in SST and surface wind speed. Cloudiness is variable on the cold side of the SST front ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 coverage. On the warm side, cloud fraction was quite constant in time, with values generally greater than 0.8. The highest cloud-top heights (>3 km) are found well north of the SST front, indicating areas of deeper convection. An analysis using energy and moisture budgets identifies the roles of various physical processes in the MABL evolution.

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