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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman
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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman
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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer
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J. H. Mather, T. P. Ackerman, W. E. Clements, F. J. Barnes, M. D. Ivey, L. D. Hatfield, and R. M. Reynolds

The interaction of clouds and radiation is a particularly difficult issue in the study of climate change. Clouds have a large impact on the earth's radiation budget but the range of spatial and temporal scales and the complexity of the physical processes associated with clouds made these interactions difficult to simulate. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was established to improve the understanding of the interaction of radiation with the atmosphere with a particular emphasis on the effects of clouds. To continue its role of providing data for the study of these interactions, the ARM program deployed an Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) in the tropical western Pacific. This site began operation in October 1996. The tropical western Pacific is a very important climatic region. It is characterized by strong solar heating, high water vapor concentrations, and active convection. The ARCS is equipped with a comprehensive suite of instruments for measuring surface radiation fluxes and properties of the atmospheric state and is intended to operate for the next 10 years. The ARCS is an integrated unit that includes a data management system, a site monitor and control system, an external communications system, redundant electrical power systems, and containers that provide shelter for the equipment as well as work space for site operators, technicians, and visiting scientists. The dataset the ARCS produces will be invaluable in studying issues related to clouds and radiation in the Tropics. The site is located in Manus Province, Papua New Guinea, at 2.060°S, 147.425°E, 300 km north of the island of New Guinea. Two more ARCS are planned for deployment across the tropical Pacific.

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P. Kollias, N. Bharadwaj, E. E. Clothiaux, K. Lamer, M. Oue, J. Hardin, B. Isom, I. Lindenmaier, A. Matthews, E. P. Luke, S. E. Giangrande, K. Johnson, S. Collis, J. Comstock, and J. H. Mather

Abstract

Improving our ability to predict future weather and climate conditions is strongly linked to achieving significant advancements in our understanding of cloud and precipitation processes. Observations are critical to making these advancements because they both improve our understanding of these processes and provide constraints on numerical models. Historically, instruments for observing cloud properties have limited cloud–aerosol investigations to a small subset of cloud-process interactions. To address these challenges, the last decade has seen the U.S. DOE ARM facility significantly upgrade and expand its surveillance radar capabilities toward providing holistic and multiscale observations of clouds and precipitation. These upgrades include radars that operate at four frequency bands covering a wide range of scattering regimes, improving upon the information contained in earlier ARM observations. The traditional ARM emphasis on the vertical column is maintained, providing more comprehensive, calibrated, and multiparametric measurements of clouds and precipitation. In addition, the ARM radar network now features multiple scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars to exploit polarimetric and multi-Doppler capabilities that provide a wealth of information on storm microphysics and dynamics under a wide range of conditions. Although the diversity in wavelengths and detection capabilities are unprecedented, there is still considerable work ahead before the full potential of these radar advancements is realized. This includes synergy with other observations, improved forward and inverse modeling methods, and well-designed data–model integration methods. The overarching goal is to provide a comprehensive characterization of a complete volume of the cloudy atmosphere and to act as a natural laboratory for the study of cloud processes.

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Eugene E. Clothiaux, Kenneth P. Moran, Brooks E. Martner, Thomas P. Ackerman, Gerald G. Mace, Taneil Uttal, James H. Mather, Kevin B. Widener, Mark A. Miller, and Daniel J. Rodriguez

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During the past decade, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has supported the development of several millimeter-wavelength radars for the study of clouds. This effort has culminated in the development and construction of a 35-GHz radar system by the Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Radar systems based on the NOAA ETL design are now operating at the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains central facility in central Oklahoma and the DOE ARM North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, Alaska. Operational systems are expected to come online within the next year at the DOE ARM tropical western Pacific sites located at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Nauru. In order for these radars to detect the full range of atmospheric hydrometeors, specific modes of operation must be implemented on them that are tuned to accurately detect the reflectivities of specific types of hydrometeors. The set of four operational modes that are currently in use on these radars are presented and discussed. The characteristics of the data produced by these modes of operation are also presented in order to illustrate the nature of the cloud products that are, and will be, derived from them on a continuous basis.

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J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield

The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was conducted from 27 September through 22 October 2004 over the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) on the North Slope of Alaska. The primary objectives were to collect a dataset suitable to study interactions between microphysics, dynamics, and radiative transfer in mixed-phase Arctic clouds, and to develop/evaluate cloud property retrievals from surface-and satellite-based remote sensing instruments. Observations taken during the 1977/98 Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment revealed that Arctic clouds frequently consist of one (or more) liquid layers precipitating ice. M-PACE sought to investigate the physical processes of these clouds by utilizing two aircraft (an in situ aircraft to characterize the microphysical properties of the clouds and a remote sensing aircraft to constraint the upwelling radiation) over the ACRF site on the North Slope of Alaska. The measurements successfully documented the microphysical structure of Arctic mixed-phase clouds, with multiple in situ profiles collected in both single- and multilayer clouds over two ground-based remote sensing sites. Liquid was found in clouds with cloud-top temperatures as cold as −30°C, with the coldest cloud-top temperature warmer than −40°C sampled by the aircraft. Remote sensing instruments suggest that ice was present in low concentrations, mostly concentrated in precipitation shafts, although there are indications of light ice precipitation present below the optically thick single-layer clouds. The prevalence of liquid down to these low temperatures potentially could be explained by the relatively low measured ice nuclei concentrations.

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CLOUDS AND MORE: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data

A New Data Product for Climate Studies

Shaocheng Xie, Renata B. McCoy, Stephen A. Klein, Richard T. Cederwall, Warren J. Wiscombe, Michael P. Jensen, Karen L. Johnson, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Krista L. Gaustad, Charles N. Long, James H. Mather, Sally A. McFarlane, Yan Shi, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Yanluan Lin, Stefanie D. Hall, Raymond A. McCord, Giri Palanisamy, and David D. Turner

Abstract

No Abstract available.

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