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  • Author or Editor: J. H. Richter x
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E. E. Gossard
and
J. H. Richter

Abstract

A high-resolution, vertically pointing FM/CW radar is used to record internal gravity waves in the lower atmosphere. When the temperature inversion in the atmosphere is near the ground (measured in wavelengths of the gravity waves), the shape of the waves indicates that nonlinear effects become important. Examples of such waves are shown and their shape is discussed. Theoretical results of Hunt, based on the Stokes method of approximating the solutions for waves of finite amplitude, are used to compare observation with theory.

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Scott J. Richter
and
Robert H. Stavn

Abstract

A method for estimating multivariate functional relationships between sets of measured oceanographic, meteorological, and other field data is presented. Model II regression is well known for describing functional relationships between two variables. However, there is little accessible guidance for the researcher wishing to apply model II methods to a multivariate system consisting of three or more variables. This paper describes a straightforward method to extend model II regression to the case of three or more variables.

The multiple model II procedure is applied to an analysis of the optical spectral scattering coefficient measured in the coastal ocean. The spectral scattering coefficient is regressed against both suspended mineral particle concentration and suspended organic particle concentration. The regression coefficients from this analysis provide adjusted estimates of the mineral particle scattering cross section and the organic particle scattering cross section. Greater accuracy and efficiency of the coefficients from this analysis, compared to semiempirical coefficients, is demonstrated. Examples of multivariate data are presented that have been analyzed by partitioning the variables into arbitrary bivariate models. However, in a true multivariate system with correlated predictors, such as a coupled biogeochemical cycle, these bivariate analyses yield incorrect coefficient estimates and may result in large unexplained variance. Employing instead a multivariate model II analysis can alleviate these problems and may be a better choice in these situations.

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Jadwiga H. Richter
and
Philip J. Rasch

Abstract

Transport of momentum by convection is an important process affecting global circulation. Owing to the lack of global observations, the quantification of the impact of this process on the tropospheric climate is difficult. Here an implementation of two convective momentum transport parameterizations, presented by Schneider and Lindzen and Gregory et al., in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3 (CAM3) is presented, and their effect on global climate is examined in detail. An analysis of the tropospheric zonal momentum budget reveals that convective momentum transport affects tropospheric climate mainly through changes to the Coriolis torque. These changes result in improvement of the representation of the Hadley circulation: in December–February, the upward branch of the circulation is weakened in the Northern Hemisphere and strengthened in the Southern Hemisphere, and the lower northerly branch is weakened. In June–August, similar improvements are noted. The inclusion of convective momentum transport in CAM3 reduces many of the model’s biases in the representation of surface winds, as well as in the representation of tropical convection. In an annual mean, the tropical easterly bias, subtropical westerly bias, and the bias in the 60°S jet are improved. Representation of convection is improved along the equatorial belt with decreased precipitation in the Indian Ocean and increased precipitation in the western Pacific. The improvements of the representation of tropospheric climate are greater with the implementation of the Schneider and Lindzen parameterization.

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E. Stratmann
,
D. Atlas
,
J. H. Richter
, and
D. R. Jensen

Abstract

A method of calibrating a fixed vertically pointing radar is presented. The technique involves the firing of B-B shot of known radar cross section through the beam while making successive trajectory corrections until the absolute maximum signal is attained. The results agree closely with an independent calibration of antenna gain. The approach is particularly suited to an FM-CW radar with high range resolution because the pellets reach heights well in excess of the minimum range and errors in range are negligible. Corrections are presented for the reduction in maximum two-way gain resulting from intersecting beams whose full gain is attained only at the point of intersection. It is also shown that Probert-Jones’ k 2 factor is significantly smaller for this system, and possibly for others, than the generally accepted value of unity. The method can be readily extended to any sufficiently sensitive pulsed radar by using small elevation angles and direct measurements of range rather than those obtained from the echoes.

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V. R. Noonkester
,
D. R. Jensen
,
J. H. Richter
,
W. Viezee
, and
R. T. H. Collis

Abstract

Boundary layer probing by multiple remote sensors can greatly improve the understanding of processes in this complex region. For this purpose one needs to know the unique information each individual sensor can provide. Two promising boundary layer remote sensors, a microwave, frequency-modulated, continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar and a laser radar (lidar), were operated simultaneously to probe a common volume. As expected, the lidar sometimes separately detected aerosol layers, notably cloud bases, and the radar sometimes separately detected refractive layers and insects. Boundaries of aerosol structures were often found to be regions of radar returns such as in layers, convective activity, and breaking waves. In contrast, however, a refractive layer was observed within an apparently well-mixed aerosol layer. The data indicate that the radar may have a characteristic echo which is coincident with cloud and fog tops. This experiment shows that FM-CW radars and lidars can separately sense layering in the boundary region and that they provide complementary information on boundary layer mixing processes.

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D. Atlas
,
J. I. Metcalf
,
J. H. Richter
, and
E. E. Gossard

Abstract

No abstract available.

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D. Atlas
,
J. I. Metcalf
,
J. H. Richter
, and
E. E. Gossard

Abstract

Ultra-high resolution (2m) radar observations show the amplification of unstable Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves, the development of roll vortices, their breaking and the resulting turbulence, and appear to represent our first view of the life cycle of clear air turbulence. The KH waves are initiated at the base of an inversion at which the Richardson number, Ri, is slightly positive just prior to wave action, and above which Ri≫0. Accordingly, only a small enhancement of the wind shear at the interface will reduce Ri to the critical value (0–0.25) required to trigger KH waves. The KH waves also trigger stable waves in the dynamically stable stratum immediately above. Quantitative measurements indicate reflectivities typically 10 times greater, and occasionally 300 times greater, than the previously recorded maximum, but in strata of only a few meters vertical extent. Large-volume averaging by the prior low-resolution radars accounts largely for the discrepancy. The thinness of some of the scatter layers and the smoothness of the reflectivity contours precludes turbulent eddies exceeding a few meters, but the high reflectivities require major centimetric scale perturbations in refractivity. Direct measurements of microscale perturbations of the required magnitude by Lane, though rare, support the deductions. The origin of this microscale turbulence, especially in layers of large dynamic stability, is a mystery deserving attention. The intermittency of the KH wave activity and the undulations of the layer of large refractivity variance explain the previously reported patchiness of turbulence in and near stable strata, but raise serious questions as to the validity of long-path (duration) measurements of turbulence spectra. Both the form and intensity of the turbulence spectrum are also strongly dependent on height and the “age” of CAT.

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Richard B. Neale
,
Jadwiga Richter
,
Sungsu Park
,
Peter H. Lauritzen
,
Stephen J. Vavrus
,
Philip J. Rasch
, and
Minghua Zhang

Abstract

The Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4), was released as part of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4). The finite volume (FV) dynamical core is now the default because of its superior transport and conservation properties. Deep convection parameterization changes include a dilute plume calculation of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the introduction of convective momentum transport (CMT). An additional cloud fraction calculation is now performed following macrophysical state updates to provide improved thermodynamic consistency. A freeze-drying modification is further made to the cloud fraction calculation in very dry environments (e.g., the Arctic), where cloud fraction and cloud water values were often inconsistent in CAM3. In CAM4 the FV dynamical core further degrades the excessive trade-wind simulation, but reduces zonal stress errors at higher latitudes. Plume dilution alleviates much of the midtropospheric tropical dry biases and reduces the persistent monsoon precipitation biases over the Arabian Peninsula and the southern Indian Ocean. CMT reduces much of the excessive trade-wind biases in eastern ocean basins. CAM4 shows a global reduction in cloud fraction compared to CAM3, primarily as a result of the freeze-drying and improved cloud fraction equilibrium modifications. Regional climate feature improvements include the propagation of stationary waves from the Pacific into midlatitudes and the seasonal frequency of Northern Hemisphere blocking events. A 1° versus 2° horizontal resolution of the FV dynamical core exhibits superior improvements in regional climate features of precipitation and surface stress. Improvements in the fully coupled mean climate between CAM3 and CAM4 are also more substantial than in forced sea surface temperature (SST) simulations.

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Maria J. Molina
,
Jadwiga H. Richter
,
Anne A. Glanville
,
Katherine Dagon
,
Judith Berner
,
Aixue Hu
, and
Gerald A. Meehl

Abstract

This study focuses on assessing the representation and predictability of North American weather regimes, which are persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns, in a set of initialized subseasonal reforecasts created using the Community Earth System Model, version 2 (CESM2). The k-means clustering was used to extract four key North American (10°–70°N, 150°–40°W) weather regimes within ERA5 reanalysis, which were used to interpret CESM2 subseasonal forecast performance. Results show that CESM2 can recreate the climatology of the four main North American weather regimes with skill but exhibits biases during later lead times with overoccurrence of the West Coast high regime and underoccurrence of the Greenland high and Alaskan ridge regimes. Overall, the West Coast high and Pacific trough regimes exhibited higher predictability within CESM2, partly related to El Niño. Despite biases, several reforecasts were skillful and exhibited high predictability during later lead times, which could be partly attributed to skillful representation of the atmosphere from the tropics to extratropics upstream of North America. The high predictability at the subseasonal time scale of these case-study examples was manifested as an “ensemble realignment,” in which most ensemble members agreed on a prediction despite ensemble trajectory dispersion during earlier lead times. Weather regimes were also shown to project distinct temperature and precipitation anomalies across North America that largely agree with observational products. This study further demonstrates that unsupervised learning methods can be used to uncover sources and limits of subseasonal predictability, along with systematic biases present in numerical prediction systems.

Significance Statement

North American weather regimes are large-scale atmospheric patterns that can persist for several days. Their skillful subseasonal (2 weeks or greater) prediction can provide valuable lead time to prepare for temperature and precipitation anomalies that can stress energy and water resources. The purpose of this study was to assess the climatological representation and subseasonal predictability of four key North American weather regimes using a research subseasonal prediction system and clustering analysis. We found that the Pacific trough and West Coast high regimes exhibited higher predictability than other regimes and that skillful representation of conditions across the tropics and extratropics can increase predictability during later lead times. Future work will quantify causal pathways associated with high predictability.

Open access
Simone Tilmes
,
Jadwiga H. Richter
,
Ben Kravitz
,
Douglas G. MacMartin
,
Michael J. Mills
,
Isla R. Simpson
,
Anne S. Glanville
,
John T. Fasullo
,
Adam S. Phillips
,
Jean-Francois Lamarque
,
Joseph Tribbia
,
Jim Edwards
,
Sheri Mickelson
, and
Siddhartha Ghosh

Abstract

This paper describes the Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering Large Ensemble (GLENS) project, which promotes the use of a unique model dataset, performed with the Community Earth System Model, with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model as its atmospheric component [CESM1(WACCM)], to investigate global and regional impacts of geoengineering. The performed simulations were designed to achieve multiple simultaneous climate goals, by strategically placing sulfur injections at four different locations in the stratosphere, unlike many earlier studies that targeted globally averaged surface temperature by placing injections in regions at or around the equator. This advanced approach reduces some of the previously found adverse effects of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, including uneven cooling between the poles and the equator and shifts in tropical precipitation. The 20-member ensemble increases the ability to distinguish between forced changes and changes due to climate variability in global and regional climate variables in the coupled atmosphere, land, sea ice, and ocean system. We invite the broader community to perform in-depth analyses of climate-related impacts and to identify processes that lead to changes in the climate system as the result of a strategic application of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

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