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Jost Heintzenberg and Robert J. Charlson

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to document the key literature references and to describe the design philosophy. the principles of the instrument, the various possible designs, calibration, systematic errors, applications to scientific problems and inherent limitations. According to the design philosophy established in the original publication, instruments are devised to directly measure the relevant integral aerosol parameters, thus eliminating the need for assumptions about particle size distribution, particle shape and composition, complex Mie calculations, and the unknown uncertainties associated with them. The key parameter measured by the integrating nephelometer is the scattering component of extinction as a function of wavelength. This philosophy subsequently allows two approaches to the determination of several parameters—direct measurement with the aid of the integrating nephelemeter and calculation via the Mie formalism. Comparison of calculated and measured values for a parameter allows closure studies; that is, the difference between them is an objective measure of the uncertainty that is inherent in the combined set of measured and calculated parameter values.

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K. B. Noone, K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, J. Ström, and J. A. Ogren

Abstract

This study presents a new technique for making in situ measurements of cirrus cloud microphysical properties. Sampling of cirrus clouds was performed using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI). The CVI was used to sample cloud elements larger than 4 µm in aerodynamic diameter. In conjunction with a Lyman-α hygrometer, this gave a direct measurement of the condensed water content. Sampling the cloud elements with the CVI also allowed the authors to examine the size distribution of the residual particles produced by evaporation of the cloud elements. This study discusses and evaluates the CVI technique for use in sampling cirrus clouds, especially for sampling small cloud elements. Measurements of condensed water content and cloud-element (crystal and droplet) concentrations for cirrus uncinus, floccus, and cirrostratus clouds made using the CVI during the International Cirrus Experiment experiment are presented. Examples of size distributions of the residual aerosol particles from cirrus cloud elements are also presented.

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J. Ström, B. Strauss, T. Anderson, F. Schröder, J. Heintzenberg, and P. Wendling

Abstract

In situ measurements made in cold (−35° to −60°C) cirrus clouds over southern Germany in March 1994 are presented. The clouds appeared to be in an early stage of their life cycle and their properties in many ways resemble those reported for ice fogs. Crystal concentrations were high (median 2.5 cm−3, STP) and sizes small with a diameter of mean mass of typically 16 μm. The cloud on 18 March presents an interesting case for modeling studies of cirrus formation. On that particular day, the bulk properties of the cloud appeared to be connected to wave structures in the vertical wind field consistent with the Brunt–Väisälä frequency, which gave a corresponding wavelength of 40–50 km. Furthermore, analyses of potential temperature and vertical wind suggested that the vertical displacement producing these clouds was less than 100 m. Size distribution measurements of interstitial particles and crystal residues (particles remaining after evaporation of the crystals) show that small aerosol particles (diameters <0.5 μm) participate in the nucleation of cirrus crystals at low temperatures. Because the aerosol in this small size range is readily perturbed by anthropogenic activity, it is important to study the link between upper tropospheric aerosol properties and cirrus cloud microphysics. While the observations presented here are not adequate to quantify this link, they pave the way for modeling studies and would be interesting to compare to cirrus observations from cleaner regions.

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J. Ström, R. Busen, M. Quante, B. Guillemet, P. R. A. Brown, and J. Heintzenberg

Abstract

During the pre-EUCREX (European Cloud and Radiation Experiment) intercomparison of airborne instrumentation in January 1992, nine hygrometers mounted on three different aircraft were compared. Although the different instruments are based on completely different principles and the three aircraft have very different flying characteristics, humidity data from both vertical profiles as well as horizontal flight legs showed good agreement. Despite the different aircraft limitations the intercomparison was done with the aircraft in close formation. In terms of relative difference in mixing ratio, most instruments agreed to within ±5% for values down to about 0.1 g kg−1. For mixing ratios between 0.03 and 0.1 g kg−1 most instruments agreed to within ±15%. Systematic differences between the instruments suggest that in joint experiments where data will be shared, the same algorithms for evaluating and converting humidity parameters should be used whenever possible.

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F. Stratmann, A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt

Abstract

In this paper, a new device is introduced to study the formation and growth of cloud droplets under near-atmospheric supersaturations. The new device, called the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS), is based on a laminar flow tube. It has been designed to reproduce the thermodynamic conditions of atmospheric clouds as realistically as possible.

A series of experiments have been conducted that prove the definition and stability of the flow field inside the LACIS as well as the stability and reproducibility of the generated droplet size distributions as a function of the applied thermodynamic conditions. Measured droplet size distributions are in good agreement with those determined by a newly developed Eulerian particle–droplet dynamical model.

Further investigations will focus on the influences of latent heat release during vapor condensation on the tube walls and the development of a more suitable optical particle counter for droplet size determination.

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J. Heintzenberg, A. Wiedensohler, T. M. Tuch, D. S. Covert, P. Sheridan, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, R. Nessler, C. Kleefeld, N. Kalivitis, V. Aaltonen, R-T. Wilhelm, and M. Havlicek

Abstract

This study determined measured and Mie-calculated angular signal truncations for total and backscatter TSI, Inc., nephelometers, as a function of wavelength and for particles of known size and composition. Except for the total scattering channels, similar agreements as in a previous study of measured and calculated truncations were derived for submicrometer test aerosols. For the first time, instrument responses were also determined for supermicrometer test aerosols up to 1.9 μm in geometric mean diameter. These supermicrometer data confirm the theoretical predictions of strong angular truncations of the total scatter signals in integrating nephelometers due to the limited range of measured forward scattering angles. Truncations up to 60% were determined for the largest measured particles. Rough empirical truncation corrections have been derived from the calibration data for Radiance Research and Ecotech nephelometers for which no detailed response characteristics exist. Intercomparisons of the nephelometers measuring urban atmospheric aerosols yield average deviations of the slope from a 1:1 relation with a TSI reference nephelometer of less than 7%. Average intercepts range between +0.53 and −0.19 Mm−1. For the Radiance Research and Ecotech nephelometers ambient regressions of the Radiance Research and Ecotech instruments with the TSI nephelometer show larger negative intercepts, which are attributed to their less well characterized optics.

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C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, P. J. Crutzen, H. Fischer, H. Güsten, W. Hans, G. Heinrich, J. Heintzenberg, M. Hermann, T. Immelmann, D. Kersting, M. Maiss, M. Nolle, A. Pitscheider, H. Pohlkamp, D. Scharffe, K. Specht, and A. Wiedensohler

Abstract

The deployment of measurement equipment in passenger aircraft for the observation of atmospheric trace constituents is described. The package of automated instruments that is installed in a one-ton-capacity aircraft freight container positioned in the forward cargo bay of a Boeing 767 ER can register a vast amount of atmospheric data during regular long-distance flights. The air inlet system that is mounted on the fuselage directly below the container comprises an aerosol inlet, a separate inlet for trace-gas sampling, and an air exhaust. All instruments, the central computer, and power supply are mounted in aviation-approved racks that slide into the reinforced container. The current instrument package comprises a fast-response chemiluminescence sensor and a conventional UV absorption detector for O3; a gas chromatograph for CO; two condensation nuclei counters for particles larger than 5 and 12 nm; and a 12-canister large-capacity whole air sampler for laboratory trace-gas analysis and isotopic analysis of CO2, CO, CH4, and N20. First measurement results of the operational Civil Aircraft for Remote Sensing and In Situ Measurements in Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Based on the Instrumentation Container Concept (CARIBIC) container are reported.

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