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B. Federer
,
N. Brichet
, and
J. Jouzel

Abstract

Equations describing the isotopic balance between five water species (vapor, cloud water, rainwater, cloud ice and graupel)have been incorporated into a one-dimensional steady-state cloud model. The isotope contents of the various water substances were calculated as a function of height. From these profiles, the isotopic concentration δH of the water accreted by hailstones growing in this model cloud is determined. The results are compared with those obtained from the adiabatic model (δAM). The differences are substantial. A sensitivity study shows that the δH profiles for two different soundings are dependent on the changes in the droplet-size distributions, which influence the conversion of cloud water to rainwater, and, to a lesser degree, on entrainment. If a reasonable concentration of raindrops is allowed, the results are remarkably stable if all the other adjustable parameters are varied. The application of the model to isotopic data of hailstones and its comparison with the adiabatic model in Part II shows that it gives realistic results.

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B. Federer
,
B. Thalmann
, and
J. Jouzel

Abstract

Hailstone collections were made in seven storms well documented by radar measurements. This sections were prepared of over 2000 hailstones for crystallographic analysis of embryos and growth layers. The majority of the embryos were frozen drops, embedded in a clear layer (2A type). Selected hailstones were also analyzed for their deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope content. The results, plotted in a δD-δO18 diagram give information on the extent to which embryos and growth layers evaporated and/or condensed during growth. Frozen drop embryos and clear growth layers showed a significantly stronger evaporation during growth than did graupel and opaque layers. Evidence is presented that some frozen drop embryos are soaked and melted graupel or large aggregates rather than drops formed by coalescence or shed from hailstone surfaces.

Using the isotopic cloud model (ICM) of Part I, an absolute temperature scale was attributed to the isotope values and hailstone trajectories wore calculated. The growth ranges of embryos and hailstones are compared with the storms’ radar structure. Good agreement was found for most storms, and it is concluded that the ICM gives more realistic results than the adiabatic model used earlier. With the ICM, the large height deviations, obtained with the adiabatic model, are considerably reduced, eliminating the deduction of hailstone growth below −40°C which is impossible. The overall growth range for the 86 hailstones analyzed for D and O18 lies between −2.5 and −30.5°C, but hailstones grow mainly between −15 and −25°C in a wet mode. The trajectories of the large hailstones are surprisingly flat, indicating that an approximate balance is maintained between updraft and the increasing terminal velocities of the growing hailstones. Measurements of the isotope content of subcloud vapor showed variations of 10–15% even on days without precipitation and the crystallographic method for determining δ0 and thereby fixing the temperature scale is recommended.

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V. Masson-Delmotte
,
S. Hou
,
A. Ekaykin
,
J. Jouzel
,
A. Aristarain
,
R. T. Bernardo
,
D. Bromwich
,
O. Cattani
,
M. Delmotte
,
S. Falourd
,
M. Frezzotti
,
H. Gallée
,
L. Genoni
,
E. Isaksson
,
A. Landais
,
M. M. Helsen
,
G. Hoffmann
,
J. Lopez
,
V. Morgan
,
H. Motoyama
,
D. Noone
,
H. Oerter
,
J. R. Petit
,
A. Royer
,
R. Uemura
,
G. A. Schmidt
,
E. Schlosser
,
J. C. Simões
,
E. J. Steig
,
B. Stenni
,
M. Stievenard
,
M. R. van den Broeke
,
R. S. W. van de Wal
,
W. J. van de Berg
,
F. Vimeux
, and
J. W. C. White

Abstract

A database of surface Antarctic snow isotopic composition is constructed using available measurements, with an estimate of data quality and local variability. Although more than 1000 locations are documented, the spatial coverage remains uneven with a majority of sites located in specific areas of East Antarctica. The database is used to analyze the spatial variations in snow isotopic composition with respect to geographical characteristics (elevation, distance to the coast) and climatic features (temperature, accumulation) and with a focus on deuterium excess. The capacity of theoretical isotopic, regional, and general circulation atmospheric models (including “isotopic” models) to reproduce the observed features and assess the role of moisture advection in spatial deuterium excess fluctuations is analyzed.

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