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Melvin J. Schroeder and Gerard E. Klazura

Abstract

Digital radar data are being collected as part of the Bureau of Reclamation's High Plains Cooperative Program (HIPLEX). The radars used in this study are sensitive, narrow-beam, 5 cm wavelength systems which record echo data on computer compatible magnetic tape. The antenna scans continuously in a volume mode of 360° in azimuth and 12° in elevation. The time interval for a complete volume scan is approximately 5 min. An overview of the HIPLEX radar operational program and data flow from collection to analysis products is presented.

Computer programs to edit, correct, compress, process and archive the data have been developed and tested. Examples and descriptions of printed, microfiche and magnetic tape output are described. These include composite maximum reflectivity and echo top displays, an equivalent reflectivity file, and a case study summary file which contains location, area, volume, rain and motion information for cells that were identified and tracked. It is shown that the flow of digital radar data has a sufficient amount of human intervention to maintain quality control in an evolving computer environment.

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Gerard E. Klazura and Clement J. Todd

Abstract

A systematic modeling exploration has been conducted to map the growth and trajectory of hygroscopically initiated precipitation particles. The model used is a one-dimensional, steady-state, condensation-coalescence model with adiabatic cloud water content. Drop breakup and freezing were simulated but competition among precipitation particles was not considered. Sizes of initial hygroscopic seeds varied from 5 to 400 μm in diameter, updraft speed ranged from 1 to 25 m s−1, and cloud base temperature varied from 0 to 20°C. The 23 July 1970 salt seeding case reported by Biswas and Dennis was also analyzed using the model.

The numerical simulations reveal several complex interactions: 1) For slow updrafts, the larger hygroscopic seeds travel through a lower trajectory and sweep out less water than small, hygroscopic seeds which are also more apt to grow large enough to break up and create additional large precipitation particles. 2) For fast updrafts, the larger hygroscopic seeds grow into precipitation and stand a better chance of breaking up and initiating a Langmuir chain reaction, while the small hygroscopic particles are carried up to the cirrus level and are lost before they reach precipitation size. 3) For very strong updrafts only large hygroscopic seeds will have a chance to convert to precipitation, and in this situation hail is produced. 4) Hygroscopic seeding produces a greater water yield from warmer based clouds.

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J. Song, M. L. Wesely, D. J. Holdridge, D. R. Cook, and J. Klazura

Abstract

Estimates of the hydrological budget in the Walnut River Watershed (WRW; ∼5000 km2) of southern Kansas were made with a parameterized subgrid-scale surface (PASS) model for the period 1996–2002. With its subgrid-scale distribution scheme, the PASS model couples surface meteorological observations with satellite remote sensing data to update root-zone available moisture and to simulate surface evapotranspiration rates at high resolution over extended areas. The PASS model is observationally driven, making use of extensive parameterizations of surface properties and processes. Heterogeneities in surface conditions are spatially resolved to an extent determined primarily by the satellite data pixel size. The purpose of modeling the spatial and interannual variability of water budget components at the regional scale is to evaluate the PASS model's ability to bridge a large grid cell of a climate model with its subgrid-scale variation. Modeled results indicate that annual total evapotranspiration at the WRW is about 66%–88% of annual precipitation—reasonable values for southeastern Kansas—and that it varies spatially and temporally. Seasonal distribution of precipitation plays an important role in evapotranspiration estimates. Comparison of modeled runoff with stream gauge measurements demonstrated close agreement and verified the accuracy of modeled evapotranspiration at the regional scale. In situ measurements of energy fluxes compare favorably with the modeled values for corresponding grid cells, and measured surface soil moisture corresponds with modeled root-zone available moisture in terms of temporal variability despite very heterogeneous surface conditions. With its ability to couple remote sensing data with surface meteorology data and its computational efficiency, PASS is easily used for modeling surface hydrological components over an extended region and in real time. Thus, it can fill a gap in evaluations of climate model output using limited field observations.

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G. E. Klazura, D. R. Cook, R. L. Coulter, R. L. Hart, D. J. Holdridge, B. M. Lesht, J. D. Lucas, T. J. Martin, M. S. Pekour, and M. L. Wesely
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N. L. Miller, A. W. King, M. A. Miller, E. P. Springer, M. L. Wesely, K. E. Bashford, M. E. Conrad, K. Costigan, P. N. Foster, H. K. Gibbs, J. Jin, J. Klazura, B. M. Lesht, M. V. Machavaram, F. Pan, J. Song, D. Troyan, and R. A. Washington-Allen

A Department of Energy (DOE) multilaboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains—the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART), the Walnut River watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater watershed (WW), in Kansas.

A 2-month intensive observation period (IOP) was conducted to gather extensive observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including finescale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements that were not made routinely by other programs. Event and seasonal water isotope (d18O, dD) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in the leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model that includes water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water-level measurements in groundwater wells.

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