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  • Author or Editor: J. R. M. Pasquier x
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C.-H. Moeng
,
W. R. Cotton
,
C. Bretherton
,
A. Chlond
,
M. Khairoutdinov
,
S. Krueger
,
W. S. Lewellen
,
M. K. MacVean
,
J. R. M. Pasquier
,
H. A. Rand
,
A. P. Siebesma
,
B. Stevens
, and
R. I. Sykes

This paper reports an intercomparison study of a stratocumulus-topped planetary boundary layer (PBL) generated from ten 3D large eddy simulation (LES) codes and four 2D cloud-resolving models (CRMs). These models vary in the numerics, the parameterizations of the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and condensation processes, and the calculation of longwave radiative cooling. Cloud-top radiative cooling is often the major source of buoyant production of turbulent kinetic energy in the stratocumulus-topped PBL. An idealized nocturnal stratocumulus case was selected for this study. It featured a statistically horizontally homogeneous and nearly solid cloud deck with no drizzle, no solar radiation, little wind shear, and little surface heating.

Results of the two-hour simulations showed that the overall cloud structure, including cloud-top height, cloud fraction, and the vertical distributions of many turbulence statistics, compared well among all LESs despite the code variations. However, the entrainment rate was found to differ significantly among the simulations. Among the model uncertainties due to numerics, SGS turbulence, SGS condensation, and radiation, none could be identified to explain such differences. Therefore, a follow-up study will focus on simulating the entrainment process. The liquid water mixing ratio profiles also varied significantly among the simulations; these profiles are sensitive to the algorithm used for computing the saturation mixing ratio.

Despite the obvious differences in eddy structure in two- and three-dimensional simulations, the cloud structure predicted by the 2D CRMs was similar to that obtained by the 3D LESs, even though the momentum fluxes, the vertical and horizontal velocity variances, and the turbulence kinetic energy profiles predicted by the 2D CRMs all differ significantly from those of the LESs.

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J. T. Pasquier
,
R. O. David
,
G. Freitas
,
R. Gierens
,
Y. Gramlich
,
S. Haslett
,
G. Li
,
B. Schäfer
,
K. Siegel
,
J. Wieder
,
K. Adachi
,
F. Belosi
,
T. Carlsen
,
S. Decesari
,
K. Ebell
,
S. Gilardoni
,
M. Gysel-Beer
,
J. Henneberger
,
J. Inoue
,
Z. A. Kanji
,
M. Koike
,
Y. Kondo
,
R. Krejci
,
U. Lohmann
,
M. Maturilli
,
M. Mazzolla
,
R. Modini
,
C. Mohr
,
G. Motos
,
A. Nenes
,
A. Nicosia
,
S. Ohata
,
M. Paglione
,
S. Park
,
R. E. Pileci
,
F. Ramelli
,
M. Rinaldi
,
C. Ritter
,
K. Sato
,
T. Storelvmo
,
Y. Tobo
,
R. Traversi
,
A. Viola
, and
P. Zieger

Abstract

The Arctic is warming at more than twice the rate of the global average. This warming is influenced by clouds, which modulate the solar and terrestrial radiative fluxes and, thus, determine the surface energy budget. However, the interactions among clouds, aerosols, and radiative fluxes in the Arctic are still poorly understood. To address these uncertainties, the Ny-Ålesund Aerosol Cloud Experiment (NASCENT) study was conducted from September 2019 to August 2020 in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. The campaign’s primary goal was to elucidate the life cycle of aerosols in the Arctic and to determine how they modulate cloud properties throughout the year. In situ and remote sensing observations were taken on the ground at sea level, at a mountaintop station, and with a tethered balloon system. An overview of the meteorological and the main aerosol seasonality encountered during the NASCENT year is introduced, followed by a presentation of first scientific highlights. In particular, we present new findings on aerosol physicochemical and molecular properties. Further, the role of cloud droplet activation and ice crystal nucleation in the formation and persistence of mixed-phase clouds, and the occurrence of secondary ice processes, are discussed and compared to the representation of cloud processes within the regional Weather Research and Forecasting Model. The paper concludes with research questions that are to be addressed in upcoming NASCENT publications.

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