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Eugene J. Aubert
and
Jay S. Winston

Abstract

By a study of heat sources and sinks, an attempt is made to further the knowledge of energy changes associated with the general circulation. The average monthly heating and cooling of the air between sea level and 10,000 ft is computed for individual and normal months. The heating and cooling regions show sizeable departures from normal and considerable monthly variations, both in magnitude and location. The absolute magnitudes of heating and cooling are greater in the colder seasons and at middle and high latitudes. At low latitudes, where the magnitudes are small, adiabatic motions are predominant. Attempts are made to determine the contributions of the various heat-exchange processes to the net heating. Certain relationships between the heating fields and the lO,OOO-ft monthly mean jet-stream are presented. The jet axis is usually found in the region of maximum transition of the heating field, with heating to the north and cooling to the south. Heat energy and kinetic energy appear to reach their longitudinal maxima at the same location along the jet.

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Eugene J. Aubert
and
Jay S. Winston

Abstract

No Abstract Available

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R. Mureau
,
J. D. Opsteegh
, and
J. S. Winston

Abstract

For 35 seasons in the years 1974–84, the importance of seasonal anomalies in tropical diabatic heating was investigated for the circulation in the tropics and in the extratropics. The heating was estimated from anomalies in outgoing longwave radiation as measured by satellite and was prescribed as a forcing in a linear study state model. With this model a small part of the observed spatial variance in the streamfunction anomalies in the tropics and lower midlatitudes in the northern hemispheric winter and autumn (5–10%) could be explained. In the tropics, in particular in the central Pacific at 700 mb, the explained variance was largest (10–25%). When the beating was exceptionally large, as during El Niño 1982–83, the similarity between observed and simulated streamfunction anomalies was much better than average not only directly over the major heat sources in the tropics but also in midlatitudes. In spite of the simplicity of the model and the neglect of the other forcing terms, the explained variance was between 25 and 60% in these regions.

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L. F. Hubert
,
A. F. Krueger
, and
J. S. Winston

Abstract

No abstract available.

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I. Ruff
,
R. Koffler
,
S. Fritz
,
J. S. Winston
, and
P. K. Rao

Abstract

The pattern of reflection of solar radiation from clouds as a function of angle is obtained by statistical analysis of observations from the TIROS IV visible radiation channel (0.55–0.75 μ). Readings from the water-vapor window channel (8ndash;12 μ) were used to select cases in which clouds fill the field of view of the sensor. The results show a generally anisotropic reflection pattern, which varies with solar zenith angle. The anisotropy is greatest for large values of solar zenith angle, the main feature in these cases being high intensity values of the radiation reflected at azimuths close to 180° from the sun, and at large zenith angles.

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