Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 57 items for

  • Author or Editor: J. Song x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
J. Song and W. Gao

Abstract

A method was investigated to estimate broadband surface shortwave albedo from the narrowband reflectances obtained by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs) on board the polar orbiting satellites. Field experiments were conducted to measure simultaneously multispectral narrowband reflectances and broadband albedo over various vegetation and soil surfaces. These data were combined to examine the behavior of narrowband-to-broadband (NTB) conversion factors for different surfaces. Many previous studies have used constant NTB conversion factors for the AVHRR data. The results from this investigation indicate that the optimal NTB conversion factors for AVHRR channels 1 and 2 have a strong dependence on the amount of green vegetation within the field of view. Two conversion factors, f 1 and f 2, were established to quantify, respectively, 1) the relationship between the reflectance in the narrow red wave band and the total reflectance within the whole visible subregion (0.3–0.685 μm) and 2) the relationship between the reflectance in the narrow near-infrared wave band and the total reflectance within the whole near-infrared subregion (0.685–2.8 μm). Values of f 1 and f 2, calculated from field data, correlated well with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), largely because of the unique characteristics of light absorption and scattering within the red and near-infrared wave bands by green leaves. The f 1–NDVI and f 2–NDVI relationships developed from this study were used to infer empirical coefficients needed to estimate surface albedo from AVHRR data. The surface albedo values calculated by the new method agreed with ground-based measurements within a root-mean-square error of 0.02, which is better than other methods that use constant empirical coefficients. Testing with albedo measurements made by unmanned aerospace vehicles during a field campaign also indicates that the new method provides an improved estimate of surface albedo.

Full access
Fengfei Song and Guang J. Zhang

Abstract

The double intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is a long-standing bias in the climatology of coupled general circulation models (CGCMs). The warm biases in southeastern Pacific (SEP) sea surface temperature (SST) are also evident in many CGCMs. In this study, the role of SEP SST in the double ITCZ is investigated by prescribing the observed SEP SST in the Community Earth System Model, version 1 (CESM1). Both the double ITCZ and dry equator problems are significantly improved with SEP SST prescribed. Both atmospheric and oceanic processes are involved in the improvements. The colder SST over the SEP decreases the precipitation, which enhances the southeasterly winds outside the prescribed SST region, cooling the ocean via increased evaporation. The enhanced descending motion over the SEP strengthens the Walker circulation. The easterly winds over the equatorial Pacific enhance upwelling and shoal the thermocline over the eastern Pacific. The changes of surface wind and wind curl lead to a weaker South Equatorial Countercurrent and stronger South Equatorial Current, preventing the warm water from expanding eastward, thereby improving both the double ITCZ and dry equator. The enhanced Walker circulation also increases the low-level wind convergence and reduces the wind speed in the tropical western Pacific, leading to warmer SST and stronger convection there. The stronger convection in turn leads to more cloud and reduces the incoming solar radiation, cooling the SST. These competing effects between radiative heat flux and latent heat flux make the atmospheric heat flux secondary to the ocean dynamics in the western Pacific warming.

Full access
Peter J. Webster and Song Yang

Abstract

We seek relationships between the perturbation kinetic energy (PKE), the zonal wind, and outgoing longwave radiation. It is found that the mean low-level PKE extratropical maxima are located at the “atmospheric centers of action” (e.g., the Aleutian and Iceland lows), which lie beneath the high-level PKE-maxima downstream of the westerly jet streams. As expected, this means that the PKE maxima in the middle latitudes are closely related to the propagating disturbances. In the tropics, however, the high-level PKE maxima and minima are located in the strongest upper tropospheric westerlies and easterlies, respectively, while the low-level PKE maxima and minima are located in the monsoon systems and the easterly trade winds, respectively. It is also found that the maxima and minima of the PKE in the middle latitudes, at least in the Northern Hemisphere, are in phase in the vertical but completely out of phase in the tropics. These features are closely linked to the structure of the zonal wind component.

The hypothesis is posed that in the tropics, the PKE maxima in the upper troposphere are related to the tropical-extratropical atmospheric interaction, to the equatorially trapped transient modes which are presumably created in the convective regions, or to a combination of both processes.

Full access
Fengfei Song and Guang J. Zhang

ABSTRACT

The double-ITCZ bias has puzzled the climate modeling community for more than two decades. Here we show that, over the northeastern Pacific Ocean, precipitation and sea surface temperature (SST) biases are seasonally dependent in the NCAR CESM1 and 37 CMIP5 models, with positive biases during boreal summer–autumn and negative biases during boreal winter–spring, although the easterly wind bias persists year round. This seasonally dependent bias is found to be caused by the model’s failure to reproduce the climatological seasonal wind reversal of the North American monsoon. During winter–spring, the observed easterly wind dominates, so the simulated stronger wind speed enhances surface evaporation and lowers SST. It is opposite when the observed wind turns to westerly during summer–autumn. An easterly wind bias, mainly evident in the lower troposphere, also occurs in the atmospheric model when the observed SST is prescribed, suggesting that it is of atmospheric origin. When the atmospheric model resolution is doubled in the CESM1, both SST and precipitation are improved in association with the reduced easterly wind bias. During boreal spring, when the double-ITCZ bias is most significant, the northern and southern ITCZ can be improved by 29.0% and 18.8%, respectively, by increasing the horizontal resolution in the CESM1. When dividing the 37 CMIP5 models into two groups on the basis of their horizontal resolutions, it is found that both the seasonally dependent biases over the northeastern Pacific and year-round biases over the southeastern Pacific are reduced substantially in the higher-resolution models, with improvement of ~30% in both regions during boreal spring. Close relationships between wind and precipitation biases over the northeastern and southeastern Pacific are also found among CMIP5 models.

Free access
Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

Abstract

The microphysical processes inside convective clouds play an important role in climate. They directly control the amount of detrainment of cloud hydrometeor and water vapor from updrafts. The detrained water substance in turn affects the anvil cloud formation, upper-tropospheric water vapor distribution, and thus the atmospheric radiation budget. In global climate models, convective parameterization schemes have not explicitly represented microphysics processes in updrafts until recently. In this paper, the authors provide a review of existing schemes for convective microphysics parameterization. These schemes are broadly divided into three groups: tuning-parameter-based schemes (simplest), single-moment schemes, and two-moment schemes (most comprehensive). Common weaknesses of the tuning-parameter-based and single-moment schemes are outlined. Examples are presented from one of the two-moment schemes to demonstrate the performance of the scheme in simulating the hydrometeor distribution in convection and its representation of the effect of aerosols on convection.

Full access
Jinjie Song and Philip J. Klotzbach

Abstract

Symmetric and wavenumber-1 asymmetric characteristics of western North Pacific tropical cyclone (TC) outer wind structures are compared between best tracks from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 2004 to 2014 as well as the Multiplatform Tropical Cyclone Surface Wind Analysis (MTCSWA) product from 2007 to 2014. Significant linear relationships of averaged wind radii are obtained among datasets, in which both gale-force and storm-force wind radii are generally estimated slightly smaller (much larger) by JTWC (JMA) than by MTCSWA. These correlations are strongly related to TC intensity relationships discussed in earlier work. Moreover, JTWC (JMA) on average represents a smaller (greater) derived shape parameter than MTCSWA does, implying that JTWC (JMA) typically assesses a more compact (less compact) storm than MTCSWA. For the wavenumber-1 asymmetry, large differences among datasets are found regardless of the magnitude or the direction of the longest radius. JTWC estimates more asymmetric storms than JMA, and it provides greater wavenumber-1 asymmetry magnitudes on average. Asymmetric storms are most frequently oriented toward the east, northeast, and north in JTWC and MTCSWA, whereas they are most frequently oriented toward the southeast, east, and northeast in JMA. The direction of the longest gale-force (storm force) wind radius in JTWC is statistically rotated 18° (32°) clockwise to that in JMA. Although the wind radii in JTWC are of higher quality than those in JMA when using MTCSWA as a baseline, there remains a need to provide a consistent and reliable wind radii estimating process among operational centers.

Full access
Xiaoliang Song and Guang J. Zhang

Abstract

Under global warming from the doubling of CO2, the equatorial Pacific experiences an El Niño–like warming, as simulated by most global climate models. A new climate feedback and response analysis method (CFRAM) is applied to 10 years of hourly output of the slab ocean model (SOM) version of the NCAR Community Climate System Model, version 3.0, (CCSM3-SOM) to determine the processes responsible for this warming. Unlike the traditional surface heat budget analysis, the CFRAM can explicitly quantify the contributions of each radiative climate feedback and of each physical and dynamical process of a GCM to temperature changes. The mean bias in the sum of partial SST changes due to each feedback derived with CFRAM in the tropical Pacific is negligible (0.5%) compared to the mean SST change from the CCSM3-SOM simulations, with a spatial pattern correlation of 0.97 between the two. The analysis shows that the factors contributing to the El Niño–like SST warming in the central Pacific are different from those in the eastern Pacific. In the central Pacific, the largest contributor to El Niño–like SST warming is dynamical advection, followed by PBL diffusion, water vapor feedback, and surface evaporation. In contrast, in the eastern Pacific the dominant contributor to El Niño–like SST warming is cloud feedback, with water vapor feedback further amplifying the warming.

Full access
Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

Abstract

This study investigates the coupled atmosphere–ocean feedback and the role of ocean dynamic heat transport in the formation of double ITCZ over the tropical Pacific in the NCAR Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) and its alleviation when a revised Zhang–McFarlane (ZM) convection scheme is used. A hierarchy of coupling strategy is employed for this purpose. A slab ocean model is coupled with the atmospheric component of the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3 (CAM3) to investigate the local feedback between the atmosphere and the ocean. It is shown that the net surface energy flux differences in the southern ITCZ region between the revised and original ZM scheme seen in the stand-alone CAM3 simulations can cool the SST by up to 1.5°C. However, the simulated SST distribution is very sensitive to the prescribed ocean heat transport required in the slab ocean model. To understand the role of ocean heat transport, the fully coupled CCSM3 model is used. The analysis of CCSM3 simulations shows that the altered ocean dynamic heat transport when the revised ZM scheme is used is largely responsible for the reduction of SST bias in the southern ITCZ region, although surface energy flux also helps to cool the SST in the first few months of the year in seasonal variation.

The results, together with those from , suggest that the unrealistic simulation of convection over the southern ITCZ region in the standard CCSM3 leads to the double-ITCZ bias through complex coupled interactions between atmospheric convection, surface winds, latent heat flux, cloud radiative forcing, SST, and upper-ocean circulations. The mitigation of the double-ITCZ bias using the revised ZM scheme is achieved by altering this chain of interactions.

Full access
Fengfei Song and Guang J. Zhang

Abstract

During boreal spring, observations show a double ITCZ over the eastern Pacific, with the northern ITCZ stronger than the southern ITCZ. However, it is opposite in most climate models. It is also evident that there exists a cold bias in tropical North Atlantic (TNA) sea surface temperature (SST) and a warm bias in southeastern Pacific (SEP) SST. In this study, the influences of TNA and SEP SSTs on the double-ITCZ bias are investigated by prescribing the observed SST in these regions in the NCAR CESM1. Results show that when TNA SST is prescribed, the northern ITCZ is substantially enhanced and the southern ITCZ is moderately reduced, although the SST response in these regions is small. When the SEP SST is prescribed, the southern ITCZ is reduced considerably. When both TNA and SEP SSTs are prescribed, the double-ITCZ bias is reduced by ~68%. Moisture budget analysis suggests that dynamics, mainly the low-level convergence change, determines the above precipitation changes. Based on a mixed layer model, changes in low-level convergence are shown to be determined by surface pressure P s changes. With prescribed TNA/SEP SSTs, SST gradients change the P s in the region directly via the Lindzen–Nigam mechanism. The corresponding low-level circulation changes affect the 850-hPa thermodynamic state in a wider region, which in turn not only strengthens the SST-induced P s change locally but also leads to P s changes remotely, including the northern ITCZ region. Furthermore, the low-level convergence changes the vertical structure of moist static energy, altering the atmospheric stability and modulating precipitation distribution.

Full access
Xiaoliang Song and Guang J. Zhang

Abstract

The eastern Pacific double-ITCZ bias has long been attributed to the warm bias of SST in the southeastern Pacific and associated local air–sea interaction. In this study, we conducted two simulations using the NCAR CESM1.2.1 to demonstrate that significant double-ITCZ bias can still form in the eastern Pacific through air–sea coupled feedback even when there is cold SST bias in the southeastern Pacific, indicating that other nonlocal culprits and mechanisms should be responsible for the double-ITCZ bias in the eastern Pacific. Further analyses show that the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in the tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of the ocean mixed layer through enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. These biases are passed into the ocean model in coupled simulations and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of the northern ITCZ and the enhancement of the southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating double-ITCZ bias. This study suggests that convection biases in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may be a culprit for the double-ITCZ bias in the eastern Pacific.

Full access