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G. D. Colello, C. Grivet, P. J. Sellers, and J. A. Berry

Abstract

The Simple Biosphere Model, version 2 (SiB2), was designed for use within atmospheric general circulation models as a soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer scheme that includes CO2 flux prediction. A stand-alone version of SiB2 was used to simulate a grassland at Station 16 of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) located near Manhattan, Kansas, for a period of 142 days of the 1987 growing season. Modeled values of soil temperature and moisture were initialized, using field measurements from the soil profile, and thereafter updated solely by model calculations. The model was driven by half-hourly atmospheric observations and regular observations of canopy biophysics. This arrangement was intended to mimic model forcing in a GCM. Three model versions are compared: (i) a Control run using parameter values taken from look-up tables used for running the Colorado State University GCM; (ii) a Tuned run with many adjustments to optimize SiB2 to this ecosystem; and (iii) a Calibrated run, which calibrated the Control version soil to the local site and incorporated two important changes from the Tuned version. Modeled fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, soil heat, net radiation, and net site CO2 were compared to over 800 half-hourly observations; modeled surface and deep soil temperatures compared to 6500 observations; and three layers of modeled soil water content compared to 15 measurements of the soil water profile. Statistical methods were used to analyze these results. In the absence of water stress all three versions accurately simulated photosynthesis and canopy conductance. However, during episodes of drought, only the Tuned and Calibrated versions accurately simulated physiological control of canopy fluxes. The largest errors were encountered in the simulation of soil respiration. These were traced to problems predicting water content and temperature in the soil profile. These results highlight the need for improved simulation of soil biophysics to obtain accurate estimates of net CO2 balance. The accuracy of the Tuned version was improved by changes that (i) allowed water extraction by roots from all soil layers, (ii) matched the soil texture specification to the site, and (iii) calibrated the expressions used for diffusion of water and heat within the soil profile.

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D. P. Billesbach, M. L. Fischer, M. S. Torn, and J. A. Berry

Abstract

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed and field-tested a portable eddy covariance system to measure exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The combination of instrumentation used in this system allows high precision flux measurements without requiring on-site infrastructure such as prepositioned towers or line power. In addition, the system contains sensors to measure a suit of soil, climatic, and energy-related parameters that are needed to quality control the fluxes and to characterize the flux footprint. The physical design and instrument packaging used in the system allows for simple transport (fits in a standard minivan) and for rapid deployment with a minimal number of field personnel (usually less than a day for one person). The power requirement for the entire system (instruments and data loggers) is less than 35 W, which is provided by a companion solar power system.

Side-by-side field comparisons between this system and two permanent AmeriFlux sites and between the roving AmeriFlux intercomparison system are described here. Results of these comparisons indicate that the portable system is capable of absolute flux resolutions of about ±1.2 μmol m−2 s−1 for CO2, ±15 W m−2 for LE, ±7 W m−2 for H, and ±0.06 m s−1 for u* between any given 30-min averaging periods. It is also found that, compared to a permanent Ameriflux site, the relative accuracy of this flux estimates is between 1% and 7%. Based on these results, it is concluded that this portable system is capable of making ecosystem flux measurements with an accuracy and precision comparable to most permanent AmeriFlux systems.

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Marc L. Fischer, David P. Billesbach, Joseph A. Berry, William J. Riley, and Margaret S. Torn

Abstract

Climate, vegetation cover, and management create finescale heterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but not well-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations in surface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. Eddy covariance fluxes were measured in seven agricultural fields—comprising winter wheat, pasture, and sorghum—in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001–03 growing seasons. Land cover was the dominant source of variation in surface fluxes, with 50%–100% differences between fields planted in winter–spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation was driven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than twofold between years. Peak aboveground biomass and growing season net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on a partitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystem respiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with an offset that increased near the time of seed production. Because the regression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfully retrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. In summary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitation on carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controlling factors in landscape-scale models will be necessary to estimate the ecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impacts associated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food, fiber, and energy.

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P.J. Sellers, D.A. Randall, G.J. Collatz, J.A. Berry, C.B. Field, D.A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, G.D. Collelo, and L. Bounoua

Abstract

The formulation of a revised land surface parameterization for use within atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) is presented. The model (SiB2) incorporates several significant improvements over the first version of the Simple Biosphere model (SiB) described in Sellers et al. The improvements can be summarized as follows:

(i) incorporation of a realistic canopy photosynthesis–conductance model to describe the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of the vegetation, respectively;

(ii) use of satellite data, as described in a companion paper, Part II, to describe the vegetation phonology;

(iii) modification of the hydrological submodel to give better descriptions of baseflows and a more reliable calculation of interlayer exchanges within the soil profile;

(iv) incorporation of a “patchy” snowmelt treatment, which prevents rapid thermal and surface reflectance transitions when the area-averaged snow cover is low and decreasing.

To accommodate the changes in (i) and (ii) above, the original two-layer vegetation canopy structure of SiB2 has been reduced to a single layer in SiB2. The use of satellite data in SiB2 and the performance of SiB2 when coupled to a GCM are described in the two companion papers, Part II and III.

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A. Protat, S. A. Young, S. A. McFarlane, T. L’Ecuyer, G. G. Mace, J. M. Comstock, C. N. Long, E. Berry, and J. Delanoë

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to investigate whether estimates of the cloud frequency of occurrence and associated cloud radiative forcing as derived from ground-based and satellite active remote sensing and radiative transfer calculations can be reconciled over a well-instrumented active remote sensing site located in Darwin, Australia, despite the very different viewing geometry and instrument characteristics. It is found that the ground-based radar–lidar combination at Darwin does not detect most of the cirrus clouds above 10 km (because of limited lidar detection capability and signal obscuration by low-level clouds) and that the CloudSat radar–Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) combination underreports the hydrometeor frequency of occurrence below 2-km height because of instrument limitations at these heights. The radiative impact associated with these differences in cloud frequency of occurrence is large on the surface downwelling shortwave fluxes (ground and satellite) and the top-of-atmosphere upwelling shortwave and longwave fluxes (ground). Good agreement is found for other radiative fluxes. Large differences in radiative heating rate as derived from ground and satellite radar–lidar instruments and radiative transfer calculations are also found above 10 km (up to 0.35 K day−1 for the shortwave and 0.8 K day−1 for the longwave). Given that the ground-based and satellite estimates of cloud frequency of occurrence and radiative impact cannot be fully reconciled over Darwin, caution should be exercised when evaluating the representation of clouds and cloud–radiation interactions in large-scale models, and limitations of each set of instrumentation should be considered when interpreting model–observation differences.

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D.A. Randall, D.A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, A.S. Denning, P.J. Sellers, C.J. Tucker, L. Bounoua, J.A. Berry, G.J. Collatz, C.B. Field, S.O. Los, C.O. Justice, and I. Fung

Abstract

SiB2, the second-generation land-surface parameterization developed by Sellers et al., has been incorporated into the Colorado State University general circulation model and tested in multidecade simulation. The control run uses a “bucket” hydrology but employs the same surface albedo and surface roughness distributions as the SiB2 run.

Results show that SiB2 leads to a general warming of the continents, as evidenced in the ground temperature, surface air temperature, and boundary-layer-mean potential temperature. The surface sensible heat flux increases and the latent heat flux decreases. This warming occurs virtually everywhere but is most spectacular over Siberia in winter.

Precipitation generally decreases over land but increases in the monsoon regions, especially the Amazon basin in January and equatorial Africa and Southeast Asia in July. Evaporation decreases considerably, especially in dry regions such as the Sahara. The excess of precipitation over evaporation increases in the monsoon regions.

The precipitable water (vertically integrated water vapor content) generally decreases over land but increases in the monsoon regions. The mixing ratio of the boundary-layer air decreases over newly all continental areas, however, including the monsoon regions. The average (composite) maximum boundary-layer depth over the diurnal cycle increases in the monsoon regions, as does the average PBL turbulence kinetic energy. The average boundary-layer wind speed also increases over most continental regions.

Groundwater content generally increases in rainy regions and decreases in dry regions, so that SiB2 has a tendency to increase its spatial variability. SiB2 leas to a general reduction of cloudiness over land. The net surface longwave cooling of the surface increases quite dramatically over land, in accordance with the increased surface temperatures and decreased cloudiness. The solar radiation absorbed at the ground also increases.

SiB2 has modest effects on the simulated general circulation of the atmosphere. Its most important impacts on the model are to improve the simulations of surface temperature and snow cover and to enable the simulation of the net rate of terrestrial carbon assimilation

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Paul W. Mielke Jr., Kenneth J. Berry, Arnett S. Dennis, Paul L. Smith, James R. Miller Jr., and Bernard A. Silverman

Abstract

Results of statistical analyses for HIPLEX-1, a randomized cloud seeding experiment, are presented. The analyses are based principally on multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) as specified before the HIPLEX-1 experiment was initiated. Even though the sample sizes are very small, due in part to the premature termination of this experiment, the three primary response variables measured in the first five minutes following treatment indicate pronounced differences in the development of ice crystals between nonseeded and seeded events. However, the response variables measured more than five minutes after treatment generally do not indicate obvious differences in the subsequent development of precipitation between nonseeded and seeded events. This lack of difference is a possible consequence of 1) lack of a seeding effect, 2) inadequacies in the physical hypothesis, or 3) the small sample sizes. Consequently, only the initial steps in the HIPLEX-1 physical hypothesis could be confirmed in this evaluation of the experiment.

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L. Bounoua, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, D. A. Randall, D. A. Dazlich, S. O. Los, J. A. Berry, I. Fung, C. J. Tucker, C. B. Field, and T. G. Jensen

Abstract

The radiative and physiological effects of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on climate are investigated using a coupled biosphere–atmosphere model. Five 30-yr climate simulations, designed to assess the radiative and physiological effects of doubled CO2, were compared to a 30-yr control run.

When the CO2 concentration was doubled for the vegetation physiological calculations only assuming no changes in vegetation biochemistry, the mean temperature increase over land was rather small (0.3 K) and was associated with a slight decrease in precipitation (−0.3%). In a second case, the vegetation was assumed to have adapted its biochemistry to a doubled CO2 (2 × CO2) atmosphere and this down regulation caused a 35% decrease in stomatal conductance and a 0.7-K increase in land surface temperature. The response of the terrestrial biosphere to radiative forcing alone—that is, a conventional greenhouse warming effect—revealed important interactions between the climate and the vegetation. Although the global mean photosynthesis exhibited no change, a slight stimulation was observed in the tropical regions, whereas in the northern latitudes photosynthesis and canopy conductance decreased as a result of high temperature stress during the growing season. This was associated with a temperature increase of more than 2 K greater in the northern latitudes than in the Tropics (4.0 K vs 1.7 K). These interactions also resulted in an asymmetry in the diurnal temperature cycle, especially in the Tropics where the nighttime temperature increase due to radiative forcing was about twice that of the daytime, an effect not discernible in the daily mean temperatures. The radiative forcing resulted in a mean temperature increase over land of 2.6 K and 7% increase in precipitation with the least effect in the Tropics. As the physiological effects were imposed along with the radiative effects, the overall temperature increase over land was 2.7 K but with a smaller difference (0.7 K) between the northern latitudes and the Tropics. The radiative forcing resulted in an increase in available energy at the earth’s surface and, in the absence of physiological effects, the evapotranspiration increased. However, changes in the physiological control of evapotranspiration due to increased CO2 largely compensated for the radiative effects and reduced the evapotranspiration approximately to its control value.

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Paul L. Smith, Arnett S. Dennis, Bernard A. Silverman, Arlin B. Super, Edmond W. Holroyd III, William A. Cooper, Paul W. Mielke Jr., Kenneth J. Berry, Harold D. Orville, and James R. Miller Jr.

Abstract

The design and conduct of HIPLEX-1, a randomized seeding experiment carried out on small cumulus congestus clouds in eastern Montana, are outlined. The seeding agent was dry ice, introduced in an effort to produce microphysical effects, especially the earlier formation of precipitation in the seeded clouds. The earlier formation was expected to increase both the probability and the amount of precipitation from those small clouds with short lifetimes. The experimental unit selection procedure, treatment and randomization procedures, the physical hypothesis, measurement procedures and the response variables defined for the experiment are discussed. Procedures used to calculate the response variables from aircraft and radar measurements are summarized and the values of those variables for the 20 HIPLEX-1 test cases from 1979 and 1980 are tabulated.

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Robert E. Dickinson, Joseph A. Berry, Gordon B. Bonan, G. James Collatz, Christopher B. Field, Inez Y. Fung, Michael Goulden, William A. Hoffmann, Robert B. Jackson, Ranga Myneni, Piers J. Sellers, and Muhammad Shaikh

Abstract

Most evapotranspiration over land occurs through vegetation. The fraction of net radiation balanced by evapotranspiration depends on stomatal controls. Stomates transpire water for the leaf to assimilate carbon, depending on the canopy carbon demand, and on root uptake, if it is limiting. Canopy carbon demand in turn depends on the balancing between visible photon-driven and enzyme-driven steps in the leaf carbon physiology. The enzyme-driven component is here represented by a Rubisco-related nitrogen reservoir that interacts with plant–soil nitrogen cycling and other components of a climate model. Previous canopy carbon models included in GCMs have assumed either fixed leaf nitrogen, that is, prescribed photosynthetic capacities, or an optimization between leaf nitrogen and light levels so that in either case stomatal conductance varied only with light levels and temperature.

A nitrogen model is coupled to a previously derived but here modified carbon model and includes, besides the enzyme reservoir, additional plant stores for leaf structure and roots. It also includes organic and mineral reservoirs in the soil; the latter are generated, exchanged, and lost by biological fixation, deposition and fertilization, mineralization, nitrification, root uptake, denitrification, and leaching. The root nutrient uptake model is a novel and simple, but rigorous, treatment of soil transport and root physiological uptake. The other soil components are largely derived from previously published parameterizations and global budget constraints.

The feasibility of applying the derived biogeochemical cycling model to climate model calculations of evapotranspiration is demonstrated through its incorporation in the Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme land model and a 17-yr Atmospheric Model Inter comparison Project II integration with the NCAR CCM3 GCM. The derived global budgets show land net primary production (NPP), fine root carbon, and various aspects of the nitrogen cycling are reasonably consistent with past studies. Time series for monthly statistics averaged over model grid points for the Amazon evergreen forest and lower Colorado basin demonstrate the coupled interannual variability of modeled precipitation, evapotranspiration, NPP, and canopy Rubisco enzymes.

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