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James E. Miller

Abstract

Separate energy equations for potential energy, kinetic energy of averaged motion, kinetic energy of eddy motion, and thermal energy are derived on the basis of four postulates concerning natural processes. The equations are transformed for use with space- and time-averaged values of the dependent variables in a general system whose boundaries have arbitrary shape and motion. The equations are written in a manner that makes apparent the significance of energy transformation functions, which are the mathematical expressions of the physical mechanisms by which one kind of energy is transformed into another.

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James E. Miller

Abstract

Cyclones originating in the Atlantic coastal region of the United States are classified into two types, and the characteristics of each type as determined from a study of 208 cyclones over a period of ten years are discussed. Methods of detecting cyclogenesis in its early stages are described and illustrated with an example.

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JAMES E. MILLER

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James E. Miller

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James E. Miller

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The effect of vertical instability on the intensity of precipitation is illustrated by a theoretical example. This example and others from the literature lead to the hypothesis that instability produced by a process such as advection of cold air over warm, moist air acts on a precipitation system to increase the total amount and to cause high intensities for short periods over small areas. The latter part of the hypothesis is verified by an analysis of 21 rainy periods in the eastern United States.

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James E. Miller

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James E. Miller
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James E. Miller

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James E. Miller
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Homer T. Mantis

Abstract

A total of 222 extratropical cyclones originating in the Pacific coastal region of Asia in the months October through April from 1932 to 1937 are summarized according to the following characteristics: geographical and monthly frequency; relation of frequency to topography; 24-hour displacement; and relation of displacement to topography. Some of the characteristics of Asiatic cyclones are compared with the characteristics of cyclones forming along the North American east coast.

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James E. Miller
and
Homer T. Mantis

An objective method of forecasting visibility at La Guardia Field, N. Y., in the winter season, is developed from data for the winter of 1943–44 and tested in the winter of 1944–45. The method is based on 24-hr air trajectories, which are forecasted by a carefully prescribed, routine procedure. The visibility at the origin of a trajectory, the location of the origin, and the final wind velocity implied by the last segment of the trajectory, are combined by means of forecast charts and a formula, to produce a 24-hr forecast of the visibility. Tests of the method show that its accuracy is not much different from the accuracy of visibility forecasts for La Guardia by other methods, but it is pointed out that an objective procedure has certain advantages over the normal subjective forecasting methods.

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