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Philippe Dubuisson
,
Vincent Giraud
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Bertrand Cadet
, and
Ping Yang

Abstract

This paper reports on the sensitivity of the brightness temperatures associated with radiances at the surface and the top of the atmosphere, simulated for the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) 8.7-, 10.6-, and 12-μm channels under ice cloudy conditions, to the optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds. The 10.6- and 12-μm channels allow simultaneous retrieval of ice cloud optical thickness and effective particle size (D eff) less than 100 μm. It is illustrated that the particle shape and size distributions of ice crystals have noticeable effects on the brightness temperatures. Using the split window technique based on the 10.6- and 12-μm channels in conjunction with cloud properties assumed a priori, the authors show that the influence of the cloud microphysical properties can lead to differences on the order of ±10% and ±25% in retrieved effective particle sizes for small (D eff < 20 μm) and large particles (D eff > 40 μm), respectively. The impact of cloud model on retrieved optical thickness is on the order of ±10%. Different particle habits may lead to ±25% differences in ice water path (IWP). Theoretically, the use of an additional channel (i.e., 8.7 μm) can give a stronger constraint on cloud model and improve the retrieval of D eff and IWP. The present simulations have confirmed that cloud microphysics has a significant impact on the 8.7-μm brightness temperatures mainly because of particle shape. This impact is larger than the errors of the IIR measurements for cloud optical thicknesses (at 12 μm) ranging from 0.3 to 8. Furthermore, it is shown that the characterization of optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds from ground-based measurements is quite challenging. Especially, water vapor in the atmosphere has an important impact on ground-based cloud retrievals. Observation stations at higher altitudes or airborne measurements would minimize the atmospheric effect.

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Claire Tinel
,
Jacques Testud
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Robin J. Hogan
,
Alain Protat
,
Julien Delanoë
, and
Dominique Bouniol

Abstract

Clouds are an important component of the earth’s climate system. A better description of their microphysical properties is needed to improve radiative transfer calculations. In the framework of the Earth, Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission preparation, the radar–lidar (RALI) airborne system, developed at L’Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (France), can be used as an airborne demonstrator. This paper presents an original method that combines cloud radar (94–95 GHz) and lidar data to derive the radiative and microphysical properties of clouds. It combines the apparent backscatter reflectivity from the radar and the apparent backscatter coefficient from the lidar. The principle of this algorithm relies on the use of a relationship between the extinction coefficient and the radar specific attenuation, derived from airborne microphysical data and Mie scattering calculations. To solve radar and lidar equations in the cloud region where signals can be obtained from both instruments, the extinction coefficients at some reference range z 0 must be known. Because the algorithms are stable for inversion performed from range z 0 toward the emitter, z 0 is chosen at the farther cloud boundary as observed by the lidar. Then, making an assumption of a relationship between extinction coefficient and backscattering coefficient, the whole extinction coefficient, the apparent reflectivity, cloud physical parameters, the effective radius, and ice water content profiles are derived. This algorithm is applied to a blind test for downward-looking instruments where the original profiles are derived from in situ measurements. It is also applied to real lidar and radar data, obtained during the 1998 Cloud Lidar and Radar Experiment (CLARE’98) field project when a prototype airborne RALI system was flown pointing at nadir. The results from the synergetic algorithm agree reasonably well with the in situ measurements.

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Laurent Sauvage
,
Pierre H. Flamant
,
Hélène Chepfer
,
Gérard Brogniez
,
Vincent Trouillet
,
Jacques Pelon
, and
Franck Albers

Abstract

During the intensive European Cloud and Radiation Experiment 1994 (EUCREX’94) conducted off the coast of Brittany (France) over the Atlantic Ocean during April 1994, natural cirrus have been analyzed from in situ and remote sensing measurements. The authors have particularly studied the case of 17 April 1994. For this day a cirrus bank is described by a complete dataset, that is, classic airborne thermodynamical measurements, microphysical (forward scattering spectrometer probe) and OAP-2D2-C (optical array probe-cloud) probes manufactured by Particle Measuring System, and radiative (Barnes Precision Radiation Thermometer, Eppley pyranometers, and upward- and downward-looking pyrgeometers) measurements above and below the cloud. More specific airborne instruments were used such as upward backscatter lidar with polarization capabilities (LEANDRE) on board the Avion de Recherches Atmosphériques et Télédétection and the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances (POLDER) radiometer on board the Falcon for measurement of bidirectional and polarized reflectances. The scene was also documented by NOAA-12/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data. However, the nonsphericity of cirrus ice crystals is clearly demonstrated by the lidar backscattering depolarization ratio measurements (Δ p = 24%) and by the absence of any rainbow in POLDER bidirectional reflectances. A specular reflection of the solar light observed on POLDER images indicates the presence of horizontally oriented ice particles in the cloud. All these optical properties will be studied in a companion paper (Part II) and compared with optical properties derived from microphysical models in order to evaluate the radiative impact of natural cirrus clouds.

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Hélène Chepfer
,
Gérard Brogniez
,
Laurent Sauvage
,
Pierre H. Flamant
,
Vincent Trouillet
, and
Jacques Pelon

Abstract

In this paper, a quantitative analysis of in situ and radiative measurements concerning cirrus clouds is presented. These measurements were performed during the European Cloud and Radiative Experiment 1994 (EUCREX’94) as discussed in an earlier paper (Part I). The analyses are expressed in terms of cirrus microphysics structure. The complex microphysical structure of cirrus cloud is approximated by simple hexagonal monocrystalline particles (columns and plates) and by polycrystalline particles (randomized triadic Koch fractals of second generation) both arbitrarily oriented in space (3D). The authors have also considered hexagonal plates randomly oriented in horizontal planes with a tilted angle of 15° (2D). Radiative properties of cirrus cloud are analyzed, assuming that the cloud is composed of 3D ice crystals, by way of an adding–doubling code. For the hypothesis of 2D ice crystals, a modified successive order of scattering code has been used. The first order of scattering is calculated exactly using the scattering phase function of 2D crystals; for the higher orders, it is assumed that the same particles are 3D oriented. To explain the whole dataset, the most appropriate microphysics, in terms of radiative properties of cirrus clouds, is that of the 2D hexagonal plates whose aspect ratio (length divided by diameter) is 0.05.

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Anne Garnier
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Philippe Dubuisson
,
Michaël Faivre
,
Olivier Chomette
,
Nicolas Pascal
, and
David P. Kratz

Abstract

The paper describes the operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data, which have been collected in the framework of the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission for the purpose of retrieving high-altitude (above 7 km) cloud effective emissivity and optical depth that can be used in synergy with the vertically resolved Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) collocated observations. After an IIR scene classification is built under the CALIOP track, the analysis is applied to features detected by CALIOP when found alone in the atmospheric column or when CALIOP identifies an opaque layer underneath. The fast-calculation radiative transfer (FASRAD) model fed by ancillary meteorological and surface data is used to compute the different components involved in the effective emissivity retrievals under the CALIOP track. The track analysis is extended to the IIR swath using homogeneity criteria that are based on radiative equivalence. The effective optical depth at 12.05 μm is shown to be a good proxy for about one-half of the cloud optical depth, allowing direct comparisons with other databases in the visible spectrum. A step-by-step quantitative sensitivity and performance analysis is provided. The method is validated through comparisons of collocated IIR and CALIOP optical depths for elevated single-layered semitransparent cirrus clouds, showing excellent agreement (within 20%) for values ranging from 1 down to 0.05. Uncertainties have been determined from the identified error sources. The optical depth distribution of semitransparent clouds is found to have a nearly exponential shape with a mean value of about 0.5–0.6.

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Yann Blanchard
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Edwin W. Eloranta
,
Kenneth P. Moran
,
Julien Delanoë
, and
Geneviève Sèze

Abstract

Active remote sensing instruments such as lidar and radar allow one to accurately detect the presence of clouds and give information on their vertical structure and phase. To better address cloud radiative impact over the Arctic area, a combined analysis based on lidar and radar ground-based and A-Train satellite measurements was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of cloud detection, as well as cloud type and vertical distribution, over the Eureka station (80°N, 86°W) between June 2006 and May 2010. Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and CloudSat data were first compared with independent ground-based cloud measurements. Seasonal and monthly trends from independent observations were found to be similar among all datasets except when compared with the weather station observations because of the large reported fraction of ice crystals suspended in the lower troposphere in winter. Further investigations focused on satellite observations that are collocated in space and time with ground-based data. Cloud fraction occurrences from ground-based instruments correlated well with both CALIPSO operational products and combined CALIPSOCloudSat retrievals, with a hit rate of 85%. The hit rate was only 77% for CloudSat products. The misdetections were mainly attributed to 1) undetected low-level clouds as a result of sensitivity loss and 2) missed clouds because of the distance between the satellite track and the station. The spaceborne lidar–radar synergy was found to be essential to have a complete picture of the cloud vertical profile down to 2 km. Errors are quantified and discussed.

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Anne Garnier
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Philippe Dubuisson
,
Ping Yang
,
Michaël Faivre
,
Olivier Chomette
,
Nicolas Pascal
,
Pat Lucker
, and
Tim Murray

Abstract

This paper describes the version-3 level-2 operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data collected in the framework of the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission to retrieve cirrus cloud effective diameter and ice water path in synergy with the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) collocated observations. The analysis uses a multisensor split-window technique relying on the concept of microphysical index applied to the two pairs of channels (12.05, 10.6 μm) and (12.05, 8.65 μm) to retrieve cirrus microphysical properties (effective diameter, ice water path) at 1-km pixel resolution. Retrievals are performed for three crystal families selected from precomputed lookup tables identified as representative of the main relationships between the microphysical indices. The uncertainties in the microphysical indices are detailed and quantified, and the impact on the retrievals is simulated. The possible biases have been assessed through consistency checks that are based on effective emissivity difference. It has been shown that particle effective diameters of single-layered cirrus clouds can be retrieved, for the first time, down to effective emissivities close to 0.05 when accurate measured background radiances can be used and up to 0.95 over ocean and land, as well as over low opaque clouds. The retrieval of the ice water path from the IIR effective optical depth and the effective diameter is discussed. Taking advantage of the cloud boundaries retrieved by CALIOP, an IIR power-law relationship between ice water content and extinction is established for four temperature ranges and shown to be consistent with previous results on average for the chosen dataset.

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Hélène Chepfer
,
Philippe Goloub
,
James Spinhirne
,
Pierre H. Flamant
,
Mario Lavorato
,
Laurent Sauvage
,
Gérard Brogniez
, and
Jacques Pelon

Abstract

Bidirectional polarized reflectances measured with the POLDER-1 instrument on board Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-1 have been used to infer cloud altitude and thermodynamical phase (ice/liquid) at a global scale. This paper presents a validation of these properties for cirrus clouds. The validation presented here is based on comparisons between POLDER-1 retrievals and measurements collected with a ground-based lidar network. The scale differences between POLDER measurements and lidar data are treated by selecting homogeneous and stable cloud layers.

These comparisons show that the cloud altitude retrieval with POLDER is valid for optically thick cloud, and nonvalid for semitransparent and thin cirrus clouds. The limitations of the cloud altitude retrieval method are analyzed by using both comparisons between POLDER and lidar and simulations of the bidirectional polarized reflectances performed with a radiative transfer code to assess a threshold of validity of the POLDER retrieval method. The comparisons of lidar and POLDER data show that the cloud thermodynamical phase (ice/liquid) retrieval is satisfactory, and examples of cloud thermodynamical phase retrieval are presented as a function of cloud temperatures.

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Artemio Plana-Fattori
,
Gérard Brogniez
,
Patrick Chervet
,
Martial Haeffelin
,
Olga Lado-Bordowsky
,
Yohann Morille
,
Frédéric Parol
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Antoine Roblin
,
Geneviève Sèze
, and
Claudia Stubenrauch

Abstract

The characterization of high clouds as performed from selected spaceborne observations is assessed in this article by employing a number of worldwide ground-based lidar multiyear datasets as reference. Among the latter, the ground lidar observations conducted at Lannion, Bretagne (48.7°N, 3.5°W), and Palaiseau, near Paris [the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA) observatory: 48.7°N, 2.2°E], both in France, are discussed in detail. High-cloud altitude statistics at these two sites were found to be similar. Optical thicknesses disagree, and possible reasons were analyzed. Despite the variety of instruments, observation strategies, and methods of analysis employed by different lidar groups, high-cloud optical thicknesses from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) were found to be consistent on the latitude band 40°–60°N. Respective high-cloud altitudes agree within 1 km with respect to those from ground lidars at Lannion and Palaiseau; such a finding remains to be verified under other synoptic regimes. Mean altitudes of high clouds from Lannion and Palaiseau ground lidars were compared with altitudes of thin cirrus from the Television and Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Path-B 8-yr climatology for a common range of optical thicknesses (0.1–1.4). Over both sites, the annual altitude distribution of thin high clouds from TOVS Path-B is asymmetric, with a peak around 8–9.5 km, whereas the distribution of high clouds retrieved from ground lidars seems symmetric with a peak around 9.5–11.5 km. Additional efforts in standardizing ground lidar observation and processing methods, and in merging high-cloud statistics from complementary measuring platforms, are recommended.

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Graeme Stephens
,
David Winker
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Charles Trepte
,
Deborah Vane
,
Cheryl Yuhas
,
Tristan L’Ecuyer
, and
Matthew Lebsock

Abstract

One of the most successful demonstrations of an integrated approach to observe Earth from multiple perspectives is the A-Train satellite constellation. The science enabled by this constellation flourished with the introduction of the two active sensors carried by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) CloudSat and the NASA–Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellites that were launched together on 28 April 2006. These two missions have provided a 10-yr demonstration of coordinated formation flying that made it possible to develop integrated products and that offered new insights into key atmospheric processes. The progress achieved over this decade of observations, summarized in this paper, clearly demonstrate the fundamental importance of the vertical structure of clouds and aerosol for understanding the influences of the larger-scale atmospheric circulation on aerosol, the hydrological cycle, the cloud-scale physics, and the formation of the major storm systems of Earth. The research also underscored inherent ambiguities in radiance data in describing cloud properties and how these active systems have greatly enhanced passive observation. It is now clear that monitoring the vertical structure of clouds and aerosol is essential, and a climate data record is now being constructed. These pioneering efforts are to be continued with the Earth Clouds, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission planned for launch in 2019.

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