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James S. Kennedy and William Nordberg

Abstract

Measurements of radiation emitted by atmospheric carbon dioxide at 15 μ were performed with the TIROS VII satellite. These measurements describe temperature patterns in the lower stratosphere. Temperature patterns covering a “quasi-global” zone (65N–65S) are investigated for the period June 1963–November 1964. The satellite observations reveal large-scale circulation features of the stratosphere, particularly during the late winter breakdown periods.

The salient feature in the Southern Hemisphere, during both late winters of 1963 and 1964, is the occurrence of a warm cell in the vicinity of Australia. This implies a deflection of the initially circumpolar vortex towards the eastern Pacific. In the Northern Hemisphere, winter is characterized by the well known warm cell over the Aleutian Islands with the vortex displaced towards the Atlantic. The Australian and North Pacific warm cells form the nucleus of the springtime warmings which then spread zonally over the entire Southern and Northern Hemispheres, respectively.

A quantitative Fourier analysis of the temperature variance along high latitude circles leads to the conclusion that there is considerable transport of ozone and heat by horizontal eddies in both hemispheres during winter. Disturbances in the zonal circulation during that period are predominantly of wave number one. During summer wave number zero prevails.

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Lewis J. Allison, George W. Nicholas, and James S. Kennedy

Abstract

The High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) carried by the Nimbus I meteorological Satellite provided detailed nighttime cloud information in the vertical as well as in the horizontal dimension. When the instantaneous field of view of the HRIR is completely filled by either a cloud or the earth's surface through clear skies, the temperature of the radiating surface can be inferred. Cloud top heights can, therefore, be deduced by relating the equivalent blackbody temperature from the satellite to the temperature-height profile of the atmosphere, providing the temperature decreases monotonically with height. Equivalent blackbody temperatures average 5K colder than air shelter temperatures based on 40 stations reporting clear skies. Cloud patterns over water are well defined from daytime HRIR data, but over land some clouds tend to be indistinguishable from land when the sum of the thermal emission and the reflected solar radiation from the cloud equals that from the land. The capability of both the photofacsimile displays and the computer maps to depict synoptic information demonstrates that HRIR data from future meteorological satellites should provide a new operational tool.

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Gregory C. Johnson, Rick Lumpkin, Simone R. Alin, Dillon J. Amaya, Molly O. Baringer, Tim Boyer, Peter Brandt, Brendan R. Carter, Ivona Cetinić, Don P. Chambers, Lijing Cheng, Andrew U. Collins, Cathy Cosca, Ricardo Domingues, Shenfu Dong, Richard A. Feely, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Bryan A. Franz, John Gilson, Gustavo Goni, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Josefine Herrford, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Boyin Huang, Masayoshi Ishii, Svetlana Jevrejeva, John J. Kennedy, Marion Kersalé, Rachel E. Killick, Peter Landschützer, Matthias Lankhorst, Eric Leuliette, Ricardo Locarnini, John M. Lyman, John J. Marra, Christopher S. Meinen, Mark A. Merrifield, Gary T. Mitchum, Ben I. Moat, R. Steven Nerem, Renellys C. Perez, Sarah G. Purkey, James Reagan, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, Hillary A. Scannell, Claudia Schmid, Joel P. Scott, David A. Siegel, David A. Smeed, Paul W. Stackhouse, William Sweet, Philip R. Thompson, Joaquin A. Triñanes, Denis L. Volkov, Rik Wanninkhof, Robert A. Weller, Caihong Wen, Toby K. Westberry, Matthew J. Widlansky, Anne C. Wilber, Lisan Yu, and Huai-Min Zhang
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Molly Baringer, Mariana B. Bif, Tim Boyer, Seth M. Bushinsky, Brendan R. Carter, Ivona Cetinić, Don P. Chambers, Lijing Cheng, Sanai Chiba, Minhan Dai, Catia M. Domingues, Shenfu Dong, Andrea J. Fassbender, Richard A. Feely, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Bryan A. Franz, John Gilson, Gustavo Goni, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Boyin Huang, Masayoshi Ishii, Svetlana Jevrejeva, William E. Johns, Gregory C. Johnson, Kenneth S. Johnson, John Kennedy, Marion Kersalé, Rachel E. Killick, Peter Landschützer, Matthias Lankhorst, Tong Lee, Eric Leuliette, Feili Li, Eric Lindstrom, Ricardo Locarnini, Susan Lozier, John M. Lyman, John J. Marra, Christopher S. Meinen, Mark A. Merrifield, Gary T. Mitchum, Ben Moat, Didier Monselesan, R. Steven Nerem, Renellys C. Perez, Sarah G. Purkey, Darren Rayner, James Reagan, Nicholas Rome, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, Claudia Schmid, Joel P. Scott, Uwe Send, David A. Siegel, David A. Smeed, Sabrina Speich, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., William Sweet, Yuichiro Takeshita, Philip R. Thompson, Joaquin A. Triñanes, Martin Visbeck, Denis L. Volkov, Rik Wanninkhof, Robert A. Weller, Toby K. Westberry, Matthew J. Widlansky, Susan E. Wijffels, Anne C. Wilber, Lisan Yu, Weidong Yu, and Huai-Min Zhang
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