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Fred L. Moore, Eric A. Ray, Karen H. Rosenlof, James W. Elkins, Pieter Tans, Anna Karion, and Colm Sweeney

A stratospheric trace gas measurement program using balloon-based sonde and AirCore sampler techniques is proposed as a way to monitor the strength of the stratospheric mean meridional or Brewer–Dobson circulation. Modeling work predicts a strengthening of the Brewer–Dobson circulation in response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations; such a change will likely impact tropospheric climate. Because the strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation is an unmeasureable quantity, trace gas measurements are used to infer characteristics of the circulation. At present, stratospheric trace gas measurements are sporadic in time and/or place, primarily associated with localized aircraft or balloon campaigns or relatively short-lived satellite instruments. This program would consist of regular trace gas profile measurements taken at multiple latitudes covering tropical, midlatitude, and polar regimes. The program would make use of the relatively low-cost AirCore and sonde techniques, allowing more frequent measurements given the significantly lower cost than with current techniques. The program will provide a means of monitoring changes in the strength and redistribution of the stratospheric circulation. The goals are to monitor the strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation and to improve understanding of the reasons for stratospheric circulation changes, ultimately resulting in more realistic model predictions of climate change for the coming decades.

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Eric J. Jensen, Leonhard Pfister, David E. Jordan, Thaopaul V. Bui, Rei Ueyama, Hanwant B. Singh, Troy D. Thornberry, Andrew W. Rollins, Ru-Shan Gao, David W. Fahey, Karen H. Rosenlof, James W. Elkins, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, R. Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, Elliot L. Atlas, Maria A. Navarro Rodriguez, Steven C. Wofsy, Jasna Pittman, Charles G. Bardeen, Owen B. Toon, Bruce C. Kindel, Paul A. Newman, Matthew J. McGill, Dennis L. Hlavka, Leslie R. Lait, Mark R. Schoeberl, John W. Bergman, Henry B. Selkirk, M. Joan Alexander, Ji-Eun Kim, Boon H. Lim, Jochen Stutz, and Klaus Pfeilsticker

Abstract

The February–March 2014 deployment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) provided unique in situ measurements in the western Pacific tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Six flights were conducted from Guam with the long-range, high-altitude, unmanned Global Hawk aircraft. The ATTREX Global Hawk payload provided measurements of water vapor, meteorological conditions, cloud properties, tracer and chemical radical concentrations, and radiative fluxes. The campaign was partially coincident with the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) airborne campaigns based in Guam using lower-altitude aircraft (see companion articles in this issue). The ATTREX dataset is being used for investigations of TTL cloud, transport, dynamical, and chemical processes, as well as for evaluation and improvement of global-model representations of TTL processes. The ATTREX data are publicly available online (at https://espoarchive.nasa.gov/).

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Chelsea R. Thompson, Steven C. Wofsy, Michael J. Prather, Paul A. Newman, Thomas F. Hanisco, Thomas B. Ryerson, David W. Fahey, Eric C. Apel, Charles A. Brock, William H. Brune, Karl Froyd, Joseph M. Katich, Julie M. Nicely, Jeff Peischl, Eric Ray, Patrick R. Veres, Siyuan Wang, Hannah M. Allen, Elizabeth Asher, Huisheng Bian, Donald Blake, Ilann Bourgeois, John Budney, T. Paul Bui, Amy Butler, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Cecilia Chang, Mian Chin, Róisín Commane, Gus Correa, John D. Crounse, Bruce Daube, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Maximilian Dollner, James W. Elkins, Arlene M. Fiore, Clare M. Flynn, Hao Guo, Samuel R. Hall, Reem A. Hannun, Alan Hills, Eric J. Hintsa, Alma Hodzic, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, L. Greg Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Ralph F. Keeling, Michelle J. Kim, Agnieszka Kupc, Forrest Lacey, Leslie R. Lait, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Junhua Liu, Kathryn McKain, Simone Meinardi, David O. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Fred L. Moore, Eric J. Morgan, Daniel M. Murphy, Lee T. Murray, Benjamin A. Nault, J. Andrew Neuman, Louis Nguyen, Yenny Gonzalez, Andrew Rollins, Karen Rosenlof, Maryann Sargent, Gregory Schill, Joshua P. Schwarz, Jason M. St. Clair, Stephen D. Steenrod, Britton B. Stephens, Susan E. Strahan, Sarah A. Strode, Colm Sweeney, Alexander B. Thames, Kirk Ullmann, Nicholas Wagner, Rodney Weber, Bernadett Weinzierl, Paul O. Wennberg, Christina J. Williamson, Glenn M. Wolfe, and Linghan Zeng

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission and a summary of selected scientific findings to date. ATom was an airborne measurements and modeling campaign aimed at characterizing the composition and chemistry of the troposphere over the most remote regions of the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans, and examining the impact of anthropogenic and natural emissions on a global scale. These remote regions dominate global chemical reactivity and are exceptionally important for global air quality and climate. ATom data provide the in situ measurements needed to understand the range of chemical species and their reactions, and to test satellite remote sensing observations and global models over large regions of the remote atmosphere. Lack of data in these regions, particularly over the oceans, has limited our understanding of how atmospheric composition is changing in response to shifting anthropogenic emissions and physical climate change. ATom was designed as a global-scale tomographic sampling mission with extensive geographic and seasonal coverage, tropospheric vertical profiling, and detailed speciation of reactive compounds and pollution tracers. ATom flew the NASA DC-8 research aircraft over four seasons to collect a comprehensive suite of measurements of gases, aerosols, and radical species from the remote troposphere and lower stratosphere on four global circuits from 2016 to 2018. Flights maintained near-continuous vertical profiling of 0.15–13-km altitudes on long meridional transects of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Analysis and modeling of ATom data have led to the significant early findings highlighted here.

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Robert J. H. Dunn, F. Aldred, Nadine Gobron, John B. Miller, Kate M. Willett, M. Ades, Robert Adler, Richard, P. Allan, Rob Allan, J. Anderson, Anthony Argüez, C. Arosio, John A. Augustine, C. Azorin-Molina, J. Barichivich, H. E. Beck, Andreas Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, David I. Berry, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier Bock, X. Bodin, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, S. A. Buehler, B. Calmettes, Laura Carrea, Laura Castia, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, E.-S. Chung, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Owen R. Cooper, Richard C. Cornes, Curt Covey, J.-F. Cretaux, M. Crotwell, Sean M. Davis, Richard A. M. de Jeu, Doug Degenstein, R. Delaloye, Larry Di Girolamo, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, Gregory Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, J. Garforth, Matthew Gentry, S. K. Gupta, S. Hahn, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, D. L. Hemming, M. Hirschi, Shu-pen (Ben) Ho, F. Hrbacek, Daan Hubert, Dale F. Hurst, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Viju O. John, Philip D. Jones, Robert Junod, J. W. Kaiser, V. Kaufmann, A. Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Elizabeth C. Kent, R. Kidd, Hyungjun Kim, Z. Kipling, A. Koppa, B. M. Kraemer, D. P. Kratz, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, D. Lavers, Norman G. Loeb, Diego Loyola, R. Madelon, Michael Mayer, M. F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, Christopher J. Merchant, Diego G. Miralles, L. Moesinger, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, L. Mösinger, Jens Mühle, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Ben Noll, J. O’Keefe, Tim J. Osborn, T. Park, A. J. Pasik, C. Pellet, Maury S. Pelto, S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, G. Petron, Coda Phillips, S. Po-Chedley, L. Polvani, W. Preimesberger, D. G. Rains, W. J. Randel, Nick A. Rayner, Samuel Rémy, L. Ricciardulli, A. D. Richardson, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, N. J. Rodríguez-Fernández, K.H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, A. Rozanov, T. Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, P. Sawaengphokhai, T. Scanlon, Verena Schenzinger, R. W. Schlegel, S. Sharma, Lei Shi, Adrian J. Simmons, Carolina Siso, Sharon L. Smith, B. J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, T. H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Martin Stengel, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Sunny Sun-Mack, P. Tans, S. J. Thackeray, E. Thibert, D. Tokuda, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald van der A, Robin van der Schalie, Gerard van der Schrier, M. van der Vliet, Guido R. van der Werf, A. Vance, Jean-Paul Vernier, Isaac J. Vimont, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray Wang, Markus Weber, David Wiese, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Takmeng Wong, R. Iestyn Woolway, Xinjia Zhou, Xungang Yin, Guangyu Zhao, Lin Zhao, Jerry R. Ziemke, Markus Ziese, and R. M. Zotta
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M. Ades, R. Adler, Rob Allan, R. P. Allan, J. Anderson, Anthony Argüez, C. Arosio, J. A. Augustine, C. Azorin-Molina, J. Barichivich, J. Barnes, H. E. Beck, Andreas Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, David I. Berry, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier. Bock, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier. Boucher, S. A. Buehler, Laura. Carrea, Hanne H. Christiansen, F. Chouza, John R. Christy, E.-S. Chung, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Gil P. Compo, Owen R. Cooper, Curt Covey, A. Crotwell, Sean M. Davis, Elvira de Eyto, Richard A. M de Jeu, B.V. VanderSat, Curtis L. DeGasperi, Doug Degenstein, Larry Di Girolamo, Martin T. Dokulil, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, G. Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Richard A. Frey, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, J. Garforth, S. K. Gupta, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, Andrew K Heidinger, D. L. Hemming, Shu-peng (Ben) Ho, Daan Hubert, Dale F. Hurst, I. Hüser, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Viju John, Philip D. Jones, J. W. Kaiser, S. Kelly, S. Khaykin, R. Kidd, Hyungiun Kim, Z. Kipling, B. M. Kraemer, D. P. Kratz, R. S. La Fuente, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, T. Leblanc, Bailing Li, Norman G Loeb, Craig S. Long, Diego Loyola, Wlodzimierz Marszelewski, B. Martens, Linda May, Michael Mayer, M. F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, W. Paul Menzel, Christopher J. Merchant, Ben R. Miller, Diego G. Miralles, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, Jens Mühle, R. Myneni, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Tim J. Osborn, T. Park, A. Pasik, Andrew M. Paterson, Mauri S. Pelto, S. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, G. Pétron, C. Phillips, Bernard Pinty, S. Po-Chedley, L. Polvani, W. Preimesberger, M. Pulkkanen, W. J. Randel, Samuel Rémy, L. Ricciardulli, A. D. Richardson, L. Rieger, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, Karen H. Rosenlof, Chris Roth, A. Rozanov, James A. Rusak, O. Rusanovskaya, T. Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, P. Sawaengphokhai, T. Scanlon, Verena Schenzinger, S. Geoffey Schladow, R. W Schlegel, Eawag Schmid, Martin, H. B. Selkirk, S. Sharma, Lei Shi, S. V. Shimaraeva, E. A. Silow, Adrian J. Simmons, C. A. Smith, Sharon L Smith, B. J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, T. H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, G. Taha, Hagen Telg, S. J. Thackeray, M. A. Timofeyev, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald J. van der A, Robin, VanderSat B.V. van der Schalie, Gerard van der SchrierW. Paul, Guido R. van der Werf, Piet Verburg, Jean-Paul Vernier, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray Wang, Shohei G. Watanabe, Mark Weber, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, David Wiese, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Takmeng Wong, R. Iestyn Woolway, Xungang Yin, Lin Zhao, Guanguo Zhao, Xinjia Zhou, Jerry R. Ziemke, and Markus Ziese
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Robert J. H. Dunn, Freya Aldred, Nadine Gobron, John B. Miller, Kate M. Willett, Melanie Ades, Robert Adler, R. P. Allan, John Anderson, Orlane Anneville, Yasuyuki Aono, Anthony Argüez, Carlo Arosio, John A. Augustine, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jonathan Barichivich, Aman Basu, Hylke E. Beck, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, Kevin Blagrave, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier Bock, Xavier Bodin, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, Gerald Bove, Dennis Buechler, Stefan A. Buehler, Laura Carrea, Kai-Lan Chang, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, Eui-Seok Chung, Laura M. Ciasto, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Owen R. Cooper, Richard C. Cornes, Curt Covey, Thomas Cropper, Molly Crotwell, Diego Cusicanqui, Sean M. Davis, Richard A. M. de Jeu, Doug Degenstein, Reynald Delaloye, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, Gregory Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Thomas W. Estilow, Nava Fedaeff, David Fereday, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Martin Füllekrug, Judith Garforth, Jay Garg, Matthew Gentry, Steven Goodman, Qiqi Gou, Nikolay Granin, Mauro Guglielmin, Sebastian Hahn, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, Debbie L. Hemming, Martin Hirschi, Shu-pen (Ben) Ho, Robert Holzworth, Filip Hrbáček, Daan Hubert, Petra Hulsman, Dale F. Hurst, Antje Inness, Ketil Isaksen, Viju O. John, Philip D. Jones, Robert Junod, Andreas Kääb, Johannes W. Kaiser, Viktor Kaufmann, Andreas Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Elizabeth C. Kent, Richard Kidd, Hyungiun Kim, Zak Kipling, Akash Koppa, Jan Henning L’Abée-Lund, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, David Lavers, Norman G. Loeb, Diego Loyola, Remi Madelon, Hilmar J. Malmquist, Wlodzimierz Marszelewski, Michael Mayer, Matthew F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, Annette Menzel, Christopher J. Merchant, Diego G. Miralles, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, Leander Mösinger, Jens Mühle, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Tiina Nõges, Ben Noll, John O’Keefe, Tim J. Osborn, Taejin Park, Cecile Pellet, Maury S. Pelto, Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Coda Phillips, Stephen Po-Chedley, Lorenzo Polvani, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Colin Price, Merja Pulkkanen, Dominik G. Rains, William J. Randel, Samuel Rémy, Lucrezia Ricciardulli, Andrew D. Richardson, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández, Karen H. Rosenlof, Chris Roth, Alexei Rozanov, This Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, Parnchai Sawaengphokhai, Verena Schenzinger, Robert W. Schlegel, Udo Schneider, Sapna Sharma, Lei Shi, Adrian J. Simmons, Carolina Siso, Sharon L. Smith, Brian J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, Tim H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Ryan Stauffer, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Andrea K. Steiner, Kenton Stewart, Pietro Stradiotti, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Hagen Telg, Stephen J. Thackeray, Emmanuel Thibert, Michael Todt, Daisuke Tokuda, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald van der A, Robin van der Schalie, Gerard van der Schrier, Mendy van der Vliet, Guido R. van der Werf, Arnold. van Vliet, Jean-Paul Vernier, Isaac J. Vimont, Katrina Virts, Sebastiàn Vivero, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray H. J. Wang, Markus Weber, David Wiese, Jeanette D. Wild, Earle Williams, Takmeng Wong, R. I. Woolway, Xungang Yin, Ye Yuan, Lin Zhao, Xinjia Zhou, Jerry R. Ziemke, Markus Ziese, and Ruxandra M. Zotta
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