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Jared W. Marquis, Alec S. Bogdanoff, James R. Campbell, James A. Cummings, Douglas L. Westphal, Nathaniel J. Smith, and Jianglong Zhang

Abstract

Passive longwave infrared radiometric satellite–based retrievals of sea surface temperature (SST) at instrument nadir are investigated for cold bias caused by unscreened optically thin cirrus (OTC) clouds [cloud optical depth (COD) ≤ 0.3]. Level 2 nonlinear SST (NLSST) retrievals over tropical oceans (30°S–30°N) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances collected aboard the NASA Aqua satellite (Aqua-MODIS) are collocated with cloud profiles from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument. OTC clouds are present in approximately 25% of tropical quality-assured (QA) Aqua-MODIS Level 2 data, representing over 99% of all contaminating cirrus found. Cold-biased NLSST (MODIS, AVHRR, and VIIRS) and triple-window (AVHRR and VIIRS only) SST retrievals are modeled based on operational algorithms using radiative transfer model simulations conducted with a hypothetical 1.5-km-thick OTC cloud placed incrementally from 10.0 to 18.0 km above mean sea level for cloud optical depths between 0.0 and 0.3. Corresponding cold bias estimates for each sensor are estimated using relative Aqua-MODIS cloud contamination frequencies as a function of cloud-top height and COD (assuming they are consistent across each platform) integrated within each corresponding modeled cold bias matrix. NLSST relative OTC cold biases, for any single observation, range from 0.33° to 0.55°C for the three sensors, with an absolute (bulk mean) bias between 0.09° and 0.14°C. Triple-window retrievals are more resilient, ranging from 0.08° to 0.14°C relative and from 0.02° to 0.04°C absolute. Cold biases are constant across the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Absolute bias is lower over the Atlantic but relative bias is higher, indicating that this issue persists globally.

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Jared W. Marquis, Mayra I. Oyola, James R. Campbell, Benjamin C. Ruston, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Emilio Cuevas, Jasper R. Lewis, Travis D. Toth, and Jianglong Zhang

Abstract

Numerical weather prediction systems depend on Hyperspectral Infrared Sounder (HIS) data, yet the impacts of dust-contaminated HIS radiances on weather forecasts has not been quantified. To determine the impact of dust aerosol on HIS radiance assimilation, we use a modified radiance assimilation system employing a one-dimensional variational assimilation system (1DVAR) developed under the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Numerical Weather Prediction–Satellite Application Facility (NWP-SAF) project, which uses the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV). Dust aerosol impacts on analyzed temperature and moisture fields are quantified using synthetic HIS observations from rawinsonde, Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Specifically, a unit dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) contamination at 550 nm can introduce larger than 2.4 and 8.6 K peak biases in analyzed temperature and dewpoint, respectively, over our test domain. We hypothesize that aerosol observations, or even possibly forecasts from aerosol predication models, may be used operationally to mitigate dust induced temperature and moisture analysis biases through forward radiative transfer modeling.

Open access
Simone Lolli, James R. Campbell, Jasper R. Lewis, Yu Gu, Jared W. Marquis, Boon Ning Chew, Soo-Chin Liew, Santo V. Salinas, and Ellsworth J. Welton

Abstract

Daytime top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) cirrus cloud radiative forcing (CRF) is estimated for cirrus clouds observed in ground-based lidar observations at Singapore in 2010 and 2011. Estimates are derived both over land and water to simulate conditions over the broader Maritime Continent archipelago of Southeast Asia. Based on bookend constraints of the lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio (20 and 30 sr), used to solve extinction and initialize corresponding radiative transfer model simulations, relative daytime TOA CRF is estimated at 2.858–3.370 W m−2 in 2010 (both 20 and 30 sr, respectively) and 3.078–3.329 W m−2 in 2011 and over water between −0.094 and 0.541 W m−2 in 2010 and −0.598 and 0.433 W m−2 in 2011 (both 30 and 20 sr, respectively). After normalizing these estimates for an approximately 80% local satellite-estimated cirrus cloud occurrence rate, they reduce in absolute daytime terms to 2.198–2.592 W m−2 in 2010 and 2.368–2.561 W m−2 in 2011 over land and −0.072–0.416 W m−2 in 2010 and −0.460–0.333 W m−2 in 2011 over water. These annual estimates are mostly consistent despite a tendency toward lower relative cloud-top heights in 2011. Uncertainties are described. Estimates support the open hypothesis of a meridional hemispheric gradient in cirrus cloud daytime TOA CRF globally, varying from positive near the equator to presumably negative approaching the non-ice-covered poles. They help expand upon the paradigm, however, by conceptualizing differences zonally between overland and overwater forcing that differ significantly. More global oceans are likely subject to negative daytime TOA CRF than previously implied.

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James R. Campbell, Erica K. Dolinar, Simone Lolli, Gilberto J. Fochesatto, Yu Gu, Jasper R. Lewis, Jared W. Marquis, Theodore M. McHardy, David R. Ryglicki, and Ellsworth J. Welton

Abstract

Cirrus cloud daytime top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing (TOA CRF) is estimated for a 2-yr NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (532 nm; MPLNET) dataset collected at Fairbanks, Alaska. Two-year-averaged daytime TOA CRF is estimated to be between −1.08 and 0.78 W·m−2 (from −0.49 to 1.10 W·m−2 in 2017, and from −1.67 to 0.47 W·m−2 in 2018). This subarctic study completes a now trilogy of MPLNET ground-based cloud forcing investigations, following midlatitude and tropical studies by Campbell et al. at Greenbelt, Maryland, and Lolli et al. at Singapore. Campbell et al. hypothesize a global meridional daytime TOA CRF gradient that begins as positive at the equator (2.20–2.59 W·m−2 over land and from −0.46 to 0.42 W·m−2 over ocean at Singapore), becomes neutral in the midlatitudes (0.03–0.27 W·m−2 over land in Maryland), and turns negative moving poleward. This study does not completely confirm Campbell et al., as values are not found as exclusively negative. Evidence in historical reanalysis data suggests that daytime cirrus forcing in and around the subarctic likely once was exclusively negative. Increasing tropopause heights, inducing higher and colder cirrus, have likely increased regional forcing over the last 40 years. We hypothesize that subarctic interannual cloud variability is likely a considerable influence on global cirrus cloud forcing sensitivity, given the irregularity of polar versus midlatitude synoptic weather intrusions. This study and hypothesis lay the basis for an extrapolation of these MPLNET experiments to satellite-based lidar cirrus cloud datasets.

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James R. Campbell, David A. Peterson, Jared W. Marquis, Gilberto J. Fochesatto, Mark A. Vaughan, Sebastian A. Stewart, Jason L. Tackett, Simone Lolli, Jasper R. Lewis, Mayra I. Oyola, and Ellsworth J. Welton
Open access