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Seung H. Baek
,
Jason E. Smerdon
,
Sloan Coats
,
A. Park Williams
,
Benjamin I. Cook
,
Edward R. Cook
, and
Richard Seager

Abstract

The tree-ring-based North American Drought Atlas (NADA), Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), and Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) collectively yield a near-hemispheric gridded reconstruction of hydroclimate variability over the last millennium. To test the robustness of the large-scale representation of hydroclimate variability across the drought atlases, the joint expression of seasonal climate variability and teleconnections in the NADA, MADA, and OWDA are compared against two global, observation-based PDSI products. Predominantly positive (negative) correlations are determined between seasonal precipitation (surface air temperature) and collocated tree-ring-based PDSI, with average Pearson’s correlation coefficients increasing in magnitude from boreal winter to summer. For precipitation, these correlations tend to be stronger in the boreal winter and summer when calculated for the observed PDSI record, while remaining similar for temperature. Notwithstanding these differences, the drought atlases robustly express teleconnection patterns associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). These expressions exist in the drought atlas estimates of boreal summer PDSI despite the fact that these modes of climate variability are dominant in boreal winter, with the exception of the AMO. ENSO and NAO teleconnection patterns in the drought atlases are particularly consistent with their well-known dominant expressions in boreal winter and over the OWDA domain, respectively. Collectively, the findings herein confirm that the joint Northern Hemisphere drought atlases robustly reflect large-scale patterns of hydroclimate variability on seasonal to multidecadal time scales over the twentieth century and are likely to provide similarly robust estimates of hydroclimate variability prior to the existence of widespread instrumental data.

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Jason Edward Williams
,
Rinus Scheele
,
Peter van Velthoven
,
Idir Bouarar
,
Kathy Law
,
Béatrice Josse
,
Vincent-Henri Peuch
,
Xin Yang
,
John Pyle
,
Valérie Thouret
,
Brice Barret
,
Cathy Liousse
,
Frédéric Hourdin
,
Sophie Szopa
, and
Anne Cozic

The authors present results obtained during the chemistry-transport modeling (CTM) component of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Multimodel Intercomparison Project (AMMAMIP) using the recently developed L3JRCv2 emission dataset for Africa, where emphasis is placed on the summer of 2006. With the use of passive tracers, the authors show that the application of different parameterizations to describe advection, vertical diffusion, and convective mixing in a suite of state-of-the-art global CTMs results in significantly different transport mechanisms westward of the African continent. Moreover, the authors identify that the atmospheric composition over the southern Atlantic is governed by air masses originating from southern Africa for this period, resulting in maximal concentrations around 5°S. Comparisons with ozonesonde measurements at Cotonou (6.2°N, 2.2°E) indicate that the models generally overpredict surface ozone and underpredict ozone in the upper troposphere. Moreover, using recent aircraft measurements, the authors show that the high ozone concentrations that occur around 700 hPa around 5°N are not captured by any of the models, indicating shortcomings in the description of transport, the magnitude and/or location of emissions, or the in situ chemical ozone production by the various chemical mechanisms employed.

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