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Eun-Young Kwon, Jea-Eun Jung, Uran Chung, Jin I. Yun, and Hee-Seung Park


A winter-season warming trend has been observed in eastern Asian countries during the last century. Significant effects on dormancy and the subsequent bud-burst of deciduous fruit trees are expected. However, phenological observations are scant in comparison with long-time climate records in the region. Chill-day accumulation, estimated from daily maximum and minimum temperature, is a reasonable proxy for dormancy depth of temperate-zone fruit trees. A selected chill-day model was parameterized for the Campbell Early grapevine, which is the major cultivar (grown virtually everywhere) in South Korea. To derive model parameters (threshold temperature for chilling and the chilling requirement for breaking dormancy), a controlled-environment experiment using field-sampled twigs of Campbell Early was conducted. The chill-day model to estimate bud-burst dates was adjusted by derived parameters and was applied using 1994–2004 daily temperature data obtained from the automated weather station in the vineyard at the National Horticultural Research Institute. The model gave consistently good performance in predicting bud-burst of Campbell Early (RMSE of 2.5 days). To simulate dormancy depth of Campbell Early at eight locations in South Korea for the last century, the model was applied using data obtained for each location from 1921 to 2004. Calculations showed that the chilling requirement for breaking endodormancy of Campbell Early can be satisfied by mid-January to late February in South Korea, and the date was delayed going either northward or southward from the Daegu–Jeonju line that crosses the middle of South Korea in the east–west direction. Maximum length of the cold tolerant period (the number of days between endodormancy release and the forced dormancy release) showed the same spatial pattern. Dormancy release for 1981–2004 advanced by as much as 15 days relative to that for 1921–50 at all locations except Jeju (located in the southernmost island with a subtropical climate), where an average 15-day delay was predicted. The cold-tolerant period diminished somewhat at six out of eight locations. As a result, bud-burst of Campbell Early in spring was advanced by 6–10 days at most locations, and interannual variation in bud-burst dates increased at all locations. The earlier bud-burst after the 1970s was due to 1) warming in winter that results in earlier dormancy release (Incheon, Mokpo, Gangneung, and Jeonju), 2) warming in early spring that enhances regrowth after breaking dormancy (Busan and Jeju), and 3) a combination of both (Seoul and Daegu).

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