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Jean E. Laby and J. G. Sparrow

Abstract

Accuracy tests have been carried out on a 3-cm Decca W.F.2 radar by simultaneously tracking a single balloon with two radars. The errors in height and wind speed and direction arising from these tracking errors are discussed. Heights and wind speed component variations of balloons levelled using a valve technique are examined in the light of the errors found above. It is shown that significant fluctuations in wind speed occur over short and long time intervals at a given height.

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Jean E. Laby and E. L. Unthank

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J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, and Jean Laby

Abstract

Global surveys of stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosols have been made using balloon-borne photoelectric particle counters. The natural variability observed at each flight station was small enough so that typical profiles could be identified. Data are presented in the form of latitude cross sections showing lines of constant aerosol mixing ratio. The stratospheric aerosol layer is clearly delineated as well as small transient layers in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. At high and low latitudes the aerosol mixing ratio profile apparently experiences a simple shift in altitude corresponding to the change in local tropopause height.

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Jean E. Laby, J. G. Sparrow, and E. L. Unthank

Abstract

Wind data to 120,000 ft from nine selected Bureau of Meteorology stations in Australia have been analysed for the period 1959–1962. Seasonal meridional cross sections of zonal winds are presented and a comparison made with similar data for the Northern Hemisphere. Graphs are drawn for the seasonal meridional and monthly zonal winds for each station. Further evidence is shown for the biennial periodicity in the zonal stratospheric winds.

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D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. M. Kiernan, and Jean Laby

Abstract

Balloon-borne measurements of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol from late 1971 to mid-1974, a quiescent period in terms of large volcanic eruptions at stations ranging from 85°N to 90°S, are utilized in a study of the global spatial and temporal variations and for sulfur budget and aerosol source considerations. Similarities in the aerosol loading in the two hemispheres, both spatial and temporal, are evident. An apparent long-term decay in total aerosol appears to have occurred globally during the period suggesting a transient source. SO2 budgetary considerations and model calculations favor a larger injection of SO2 than would be expected from a quasi-static natural exchange of tropospheric air.

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