Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jean-Michel Campin x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
David Ferreira
,
John Marshall
, and
Jean-Michel Campin

Abstract

A series of coupled atmosphere–ocean–ice aquaplanet experiments is described in which topological constraints on ocean circulation are introduced to study the role of ocean circulation on the mean climate of the coupled system. It is imagined that the earth is completely covered by an ocean of uniform depth except for the presence or absence of narrow barriers that extend from the bottom of the ocean to the sea surface. The following four configurations are described: Aqua (no land), Ridge (one barrier extends from pole to pole), Drake (one barrier extends from the North Pole to 35°S), and DDrake (two such barriers are set 90° apart and join at the North Pole, separating the ocean into a large basin and a small basin, connected to the south). On moving from Aqua to Ridge to Drake to DDrake, the energy transports in the equilibrium solutions become increasingly “realistic,” culminating in DDrake, which has an uncanny resemblance to the present climate. Remarkably, the zonal-average climates of Drake and DDrake are strikingly similar, exhibiting almost identical heat and freshwater transports, and meridional overturning circulations. However, Drake and DDrake differ dramatically in their regional climates. The small and large basins of DDrake exhibit distinctive Atlantic-like and Pacific-like characteristics, respectively: the small basin is warmer, saltier, and denser at the surface than the large basin, and is the main site of deep water formation with a deep overturning circulation and strong northward ocean heat transport. A sensitivity experiment with DDrake demonstrates that the salinity contrast between the two basins, and hence the localization of deep convection, results from a deficit of precipitation, rather than an excess of evaporation, over the small basin. It is argued that the width of the small basin relative to the zonal fetch of atmospheric precipitation is the key to understanding this salinity contrast.

Finally, it is argued that many gross features of the present climate are consequences of two topological asymmetries that have profound effects on ocean circulation: a meridional asymmetry (circumpolar flow in the Southern Hemisphere; blocked flow in the Northern Hemisphere) and a zonal asymmetry (a small basin and a large basin).

Full access
Martin Losch
,
Alistair Adcroft
, and
Jean-Michel Campin

Abstract

The advent of high-precision gravity missions presents the opportunity to accurately measure variations in the distribution of mass in the ocean. Such a data source will prove valuable in state estimation and constraining general circulation models (GCMs) in general. However, conventional GCMs make the Boussinesq approximations, a consequence of which is that mass is not conserved. By use of the height–pressure coordinate isomorphism implemented in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITGCM), the impact of non-Boussinesq effects can be evaluated. Although implementing a non-Boussinesq model in pressure coordinates is relatively straightforward, making a direct comparison between height and pressure coordinate (i.e., Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq) models is not simple. However, a careful comparison of the height coordinate and the pressure coordinate solutions ensures that only non-Boussinesq effects can be responsible for the observed differences. As a yardstick, these differences are also compared with those between the Boussinesq hydrostatic and models in which the hydrostatic approximation has been relaxed, another approximation commonly made in GCMs. Model errors (differences) caused by the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations are demonstrated to be of comparable magnitude. Differences induced by small changes in subgrid-scale parameterizations are at least as large. Therefore, non-Boussinesq and nonhydrostatic effects are most likely negligible with respect to other model uncertainties. However, because there is no additional cost incurred in using a pressure coordinate model, it is argued that non-Boussinesq modeling is preferable simply for tidiness. It is also concluded that even coarse-resolution GCMs can be sensitive to small perturbations in the dynamical equations.

Full access
Alistair Adcroft
,
Jean-Michel Campin
,
Chris Hill
, and
John Marshall

Abstract

A hydrodynamical kernel that drives both an atmospheric and oceanic general circulation model is implemented in general orthogonal curvilinear coordinates using the finite-volume method on the sphere. The finite-volume method naturally describes arbitrary grids, and use of the vector-invariant form of the momentum equations simplifies the generalization to arbitrary coordinates. Grids based on the expanded spherical cube of Rancic et al., which contain eight singular points, are used. At these singularities the grid is nonorthogonal. The combined use of vector-invariant equations and the finite-volume method is shown to avoid degeneracy at these singular points.

The model is tested using experiments proposed by Williamson et al. and Held and Saurez. The atmospheric solutions are examined seeking evidence of the underlying grid in solutions and eddy statistics. A global ocean simulation is also conducted using the same code. The solutions prove to be accurate and free of artifacts arising from the cubic grid.

Full access
John Marshall
,
Alistair Adcroft
,
Jean-Michel Campin
,
Chris Hill
, and
Andy White

Abstract

Mathematical isomorphisms between the hydrostatic equations that govern the evolution of a compressible atmosphere and an incompressible ocean are described and exploited to guide the design of a hydrodynamical kernel for simulation of either fluid.

Full access
Gianluca Meneghello
,
Edward Doddridge
,
John Marshall
,
Jeffery Scott
, and
Jean-Michel Campin

Abstract

Observations of Ekman pumping, sea surface height anomaly, and isohaline depth anomaly over the Beaufort Gyre are used to explore the relative importance and role of (i) feedbacks between ice and ocean currents, dubbed the “ice–ocean governor,” and (ii) mesoscale eddy processes in the equilibration of the Beaufort Gyre. A two-layer model of the gyre is fit to observations and used to explore the mechanisms governing the gyre evolution from the monthly to the decennial time scale. The ice–ocean governor dominates the response on interannual time scales, with eddy processes becoming evident only on the longest, decadal time scales.

Free access
Martha W. Buckley
,
David Ferreira
,
Jean-Michel Campin
,
John Marshall
, and
Ross Tulloch

Abstract

Owing to the role of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) in ocean heat transport, AMOC variability is thought to play a role in climate variability on a wide range of time scales. This paper focuses on the potential role of the AMOC in climate variability on decadal time scales. Coupled and ocean-only general circulation models run in idealized geometries are utilized to study the relationships between decadal AMOC and buoyancy variability and determine whether the AMOC plays an active role in setting sea surface temperature on decadal time scales. Decadal AMOC variability is related to changes in the buoyancy field along the western boundary according to the thermal wind relation. Buoyancy anomalies originate in the upper ocean of the subpolar gyre and travel westward as baroclinic Rossby waves. When the buoyancy anomalies strike the western boundary, they are advected southward by the deep western boundary current, leading to latitudinally coherent AMOC variability. The AMOC is observed to respond passively to decadal buoyancy anomalies: although variability of the AMOC leads to meridional ocean heat transport anomalies, these transports are not responsible for creating the buoyancy anomalies in the subpolar gyre that drive AMOC variability.

Full access
Edward W. Doddridge
,
John Marshall
,
Hajoon Song
,
Jean-Michel Campin
, and
Maxwell Kelley

Abstract

The observational record shows a substantial 40-yr upward trend in summertime westerly winds over the Southern Ocean, as characterized by the southern annular mode (SAM) index. Enhanced summertime westerly winds have been linked to cold summertime sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Previous studies have suggested that Ekman transport or upwelling is responsible for this seasonal cooling. Here, another process is presented in which enhanced vertical mixing, driven by summertime wind anomalies, moves heat downward, cooling the sea surface and simultaneously warming the subsurface waters. The anomalously cold SSTs draw heat from the atmosphere into the ocean, leading to increased depth-integrated ocean heat content. The subsurface heat is returned to the surface mixed layer during the autumn and winter as the mixed layer deepens, leading to anomalously warm SSTs and potentially reducing sea ice cover. Observational analyses and numerical experiments support our proposed mechanism, showing that enhanced vertical mixing produces subsurface warming and cools the surface mixed layer. Nevertheless, the dominant driver of surface cooling remains uncertain; the relative importance of advective and mixing contributions to the surface cooling is model dependent. Modeling results suggest that sea ice volume is more sensitive to summertime winds than sea ice extent, implying that enhanced summertime westerly winds may lead to thinner sea ice in the following winter, if not lesser ice extent. Thus, strong summertime winds could precondition the sea ice cover for a rapid retreat in the following melt season.

Full access
Nadya T. Vinogradova
,
Rui M. Ponte
,
Katherine J. Quinn
,
Mark E. Tamisiea
,
Jean-Michel Campin
, and
James L. Davis

Abstract

The oceanic response to surface loading, such as that related to atmospheric pressure, freshwater exchange, and changes in the gravity field, is essential to our understanding of sea level variability. In particular, so-called self-attraction and loading (SAL) effects caused by the redistribution of mass within the land–atmosphere–ocean system can have a measurable impact on sea level. In this study, the nature of SAL-induced variability in sea level is examined in terms of its equilibrium (static) and nonequilibrium (dynamic) components, using a general circulation model that implicitly includes the physics of SAL. The additional SAL forcing is derived by decomposing ocean mass anomalies into spherical harmonics and then applying Love numbers to infer associated crustal displacements and gravitational shifts. This implementation of SAL physics incurs only a relatively small computational cost. Effects of SAL on sea level amount to about 10% of the applied surface loading on average but depend strongly on location. The dynamic component exhibits large-scale basinwide patterns, with considerable contributions from subweekly time scales. Departures from equilibrium decrease toward longer time scales but are not totally negligible in many places. Ocean modeling studies should benefit from using a dynamical implementation of SAL as used here.

Full access
Gianluca Meneghello
,
John Marshall
,
Camille Lique
,
Pål Erik Isachsen
,
Edward Doddridge
,
Jean-Michel Campin
,
Heather Regan
, and
Claude Talandier

Abstract

Observations of ocean currents in the Arctic interior show a curious, and hitherto unexplained, vertical and temporal distribution of mesoscale activity. A marked seasonal cycle is found close to the surface: strong eddy activity during summer, observed from both satellites and moorings, is followed by very quiet winters. In contrast, subsurface eddies persist all year long within the deeper halocline and below. Informed by baroclinic instability analysis, we explore the origin and evolution of mesoscale eddies in the seasonally ice-covered interior Arctic Ocean. We find that the surface seasonal cycle is controlled by friction with sea ice, dissipating existing eddies and preventing the growth of new ones. In contrast, subsurface eddies, enabled by interior potential vorticity gradients and shielded by a strong stratification at a depth of approximately 50 m, can grow independently of the presence of sea ice. A high-resolution pan-Arctic ocean model confirms that the interior Arctic basin is baroclinically unstable all year long at depth. We address possible implications for the transport of water masses between the margins and the interior of the Arctic basin, and for climate models’ ability to capture the fundamental difference in mesoscale activity between ice-covered and ice-free regions.

Full access