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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Paul R. Field, Matt Bailey, Dave Rogers, Jeffrey Stith, Cynthia Twohy, Zhien Wang, and Samuel Haimov


Lenticular wave clouds are used as a natural laboratory to estimate the linear and mass growth rates of ice particles at temperatures from −20° to −32°C and to characterize the apparent rate of ice nucleation at water saturation at a nearly constant temperature. Data are acquired from 139 liquid cloud penetrations flown approximately along or against the wind direction. A mean linear ice growth rate of about 1.4 μm s−1, relatively independent of particle size (in the range 100–400 μm) and temperature is deduced. Using the particle size distributions measured along the wind direction, the rate of increase in the ice water content (IWC) is calculated from the measured particle size distributions using theory and from those distributions by assuming different ice particle densities; the IWC is too small to be measured. Very low ice effective densities, <0.1 g cm−3, are needed to account for the observed rate of increase in the IWC and the unexpectedly high linear growth rate.

Using data from multiple penetrations through a narrow (along wind) and thin wave cloud with relatively flat airflow streamlines, growth rate calculations are used to estimate where the ice particles originate and whether the ice is nucleated in a narrow band or over an extended period of time. The calculations are consistent with the expectation that the ice formation occurs near the leading cloud edge, presumably through a condensation–freezing process. The observed ice concentration increase along the wind is more likely due to a variation in ice growth rates than to prolonged ice nucleation.

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Christine A. Shields, David A. Bailey, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Markus Jochum, Jeffrey T. Kiehl, Samuel Levis, and Sungsu Park


The low-resolution version of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) is a computationally efficient alternative to the intermediate and standard resolution versions of this fully coupled climate system model. It employs an atmospheric horizontal grid of 3.75° × 3.75° and 26 levels in the vertical with a spectral dynamical core (T31) and an oceanic horizontal grid that consists of a nominal 3° resolution with 60 levels in the vertical. This low-resolution version (T31x3) can be used for a variety of applications including long equilibrium simulations, development work, and sensitivity studies. The T31x3 model is validated for modern conditions by comparing to available observations. Significant problems exist for Northern Hemisphere Arctic locales where sea ice extent and thickness are excessive. This is partially due to low heat transport in T31x3, which translates into a globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) bias of −1.54°C compared to observational estimates from the 1870–99 historical record and a bias of −1.26°C compared to observations from the 1986–2005 historical record. Maximum zonal wind stress magnitude in the Southern Hemisphere matches observational estimates over the ocean, although its placement is incorrectly displaced equatorward. Aspects of climate variability in T31x3 compare to observed variability, especially so for ENSO where the amplitude and period approximate observations. T31x3 surface temperature anomaly trends for the twentieth century also follow observations. An examination of the T31x3 model relative to the intermediate CCSM4 resolution (finite volume dynamical core 1.9° × 2.5°) for preindustrial conditions shows the T31x3 model approximates this solution for climate state and variability metrics examined here.

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Luiz A. T. Machado, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Carlos Morales, Gilberto Fisch, Daniel Vila, Rachel Albrecht, Steven J. Goodman, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Christian Kummerow, Julia Cohen, David Fitzjarrald, Ernani L. Nascimento, Meiry S. Sakamoto, Christopher Cunningham, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Walter A. Petersen, David K. Adams, Luca Baldini, Carlos F. Angelis, Luiz F. Sapucci, Paola Salio, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Eduardo Landulfo, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeffrey Bailey, Saulo Freitas, Wagner F. A. Lima, and Ali Tokay

CHUVA, meaning “rain” in Portuguese, is the acronym for the Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud-Resolving Modeling and to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). The CHUVA project has conducted five field campaigns; the sixth and last campaign will be held in Manaus in 2014. The primary scientific objective of CHUVA is to contribute to the understanding of cloud processes, which represent one of the least understood components of the weather and climate system. The five CHUVA campaigns were designed to investigate specific tropical weather regimes. The first two experiments, in Alcantara and Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, focused on warm clouds. The third campaign, which was conducted in Belém, was dedicated to tropical squall lines that often form along the sea-breeze front. The fourth campaign was in the Vale do Paraiba of southeastern Brazil, which is a region with intense lightning activity. In addition to contributing to the understanding of cloud process evolution from storms to thunderstorms, this fourth campaign also provided a high-fidelity total lightning proxy dataset for the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R program. The fifth campaign was carried out in Santa Maria, in southern Brazil, a region of intense hailstorms associated with frequent mesoscale convective complexes. This campaign employed a multimodel high-resolution ensemble experiment. The data collected from contrasting precipitation regimes in tropical continental regions allow the various cloud processes in diverse environments to be compared. Some examples of these previous experiments are presented to illustrate the variability of convection across the tropics.

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