Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jiangnan Li x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Jiangnan Li

Abstract

The daytime-mean solar zenith angle (SZA) and the solar insolation–weighted-mean SZA are discussed from a global scale and from a latitude-dependent local-scale perspective. It is found that the choosing of daytime-mean SZA or insolation-weighted-mean SZA depends on whether the averaging process is zero-moment or single-moment weighted. It is a misleading to state that the solar insolation–weighted-mean SZA is more accurate than the daytime-mean SZA when averaging a radiation variable, as claimed by Cronin.

Full access
Jiangnan Li and Tim Li

Abstract

The structure and evolution characteristics of atmospheric entropy production associated with the climatologic monsoon onset and evolution were investigated using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data. The entropy balance equation contains two parts. The first part is internal entropy production that corresponds to natural dissipation. The second part is external entropy production that is associated with lower-boundary entropy supply. It is shown that the dissipation process represented by internal entropy production can be used to describe the thermal and dynamical structures of the monsoon. The thermal dissipation due to turbulent vertical diffusion and convection is highly correlated to precipitation. The dynamic dissipation due to wind stress becomes very strong over the Arabian Sea and southwestern part of India in boreal summer, and dynamic dissipation can describe the monsoon structure more clearly than variables such as wind shear. The correlation between surface entropy supply and internal entropy production is so large that the surface entropy supply can also be used to evaluate the monsoon. Over the desert region of Rajasthan, the dissipation is relatively weaker than its surroundings owing to descending large-scale eddy flow and a weak convective flux. The analysis of atmospheric entropy provides a new way to describe the monsoon development characteristics, which differs from those derived from a traditional analysis method.

Full access
Jiangnan Li and Petr Chylek

Abstract

Atmospheric entropy and its association with climate dissipation are investigated. The balance equation for entropy is derived through the mean and transient thermal and moisture equations. The entropy production contains the internal and external parts. The external entropy production, due to small-scale diabatic heating, can be evaluated by the surface entropy flux. Using NCEP data from 1998 to 2007, it is found that the surface entropy flux is much larger in the tropics than in the extratropics. In the December–February (DJF) Northern Hemisphere, there are two strong positive centers of boundary layer supply of entropy: one is in the northwestern Pacific and the other is in the western Atlantic. The external entropy production, due to large-scale eddy flow, can be evaluated by the convergence of eddy entropy flow. It is found that the large-scale eddy entropy flow is divergent in the midlatitudes and convergent in the higher latitudes. The internal entropy production shows the dissipation to the orderly thermal structure. For the internal entropy production due to a large-scale eddy, it is shown that in the Northern Hemisphere during DJF there are three maxima, located in the western Pacific, western Atlantic, and northern polar regions. This illustrates the dissipation of the highly organized thermal structure in such regions. An interesting finding is that the large-scale eddy internal entropy production is negative in the lower stratosphere. It is found that the long-time-averaged global mean of the internal entropy production is 0.037 49 W m−2 K−1. By including the entropy sink from radiation, the total entropy production is close to balance.

Full access
Feng Zhang and Jiangnan Li

Abstract

Though the single-layer solutions have been found for the δ-four-stream spherical harmonic expansion method (SHM) in radiative transfer, there is lack of a corresponding doubling–adding method (4SDA), which enables the calculation of radiative transfer through a vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere with multilayers. The doubling–adding method is based on Chandrasekhar's invariance principle, which was originally developed for discrete ordinates approximation. It is shown that the invariance principle can also be applied to SHM and δ-four-stream spherical harmonic expansion doubling–adding method (δ-4SDA) is proposed in this paper. The δ-4SDA method has been systematically compared to the δ-Eddington doubling–adding method (δ-2SDA), the δ-two-stream discrete ordinates doubling–adding method (δ-2DDA), and δ-four-stream discrete ordinates doubling–adding method (δ-4DDA). By applying δ-4SDA to a realistic atmospheric profile with gaseous transmission considered, it is found that the accuracy of δ-4SDA is superior to δ-2SDA or δ-2DDA, especially for the cloudy/aerosol conditions. It is shown that the relative errors of δ-4SDA are generally less than 1% in both heating rate and flux, while the relative errors of both δ-2SDA and δ-2DDA can be over 6%. Though δ-4DDA is slightly more accurate than δ-4SDA in heating rates, both of them are accurate enough to obtain the cloud-top solar heating. Here δ-4SDA is superior to δ-4DDA in computational efficiency. It is found that the error of aerosol radiative forcing can be up to 3 W m−2 by using δ-2SDA at the top of the atmosphere (TOA); such error is substantially reduced by applying δ-4SDA. In view of the overall accuracy and computational efficiency, δ-4SDA is suitable for application in climate models.

Full access
Jiangnan Li and Howard W. Barker

Abstract

A four-stream solution of the longwave radiative transfer is proposed. It is based on the exact perturbation method utilizing the absorption approximation equation as the zero-order solution. Scattering is handled by the first-order perturbation equation. The two- and four-stream approximations are compared both offline and using data from CALIPSO’s dual-wavelength lidar.

Open access
Peng Lu, Hua Zhang, and Jiangnan Li

Abstract

A new scheme of water cloud optical properties is proposed for correlated k-distribution (CKD) models, in which the correlation in spectral distributions between the gaseous absorption coefficient and cloud optical properties is maintained. This is an extension of the CKD method from gas to cloud by dealing with the gas absorption coefficient and cloud optical properties in the same way.

Compared to the results of line-by-line benchmark calculations, the band-mean cloud optical property scheme can overestimate cloud solar heating rate, with a relative error over 30% in general. Also, the error in the flux at the top of the atmosphere can be up to 20 W m−2 at a solar zenith angle of 0°. However, the error is considerably reduced by applying the new proposed CKD cloud scheme. The physical explanation of the large error for the band-mean cloud scheme is the absence of a spectral correlation between the gaseous absorption coefficient and the cloud optical properties. The overestimation of the solar heating rate at the cloud-top layer could affect the moisture circulation and limit the growth of cloud. It is found that the error in the longwave cooling rate caused by the band-mean cloud scheme is very small. In the infrared, the local thermal emission strongly affects the spectral distribution of the radiative flux, which makes the correlation between the gaseous absorption coefficient and cloud optical properties very weak. Therefore, there is no obvious advantage in emphasizing the spectral correlation between gas and cloud.

Full access
Jiangnan Li, Petr Chylek, and Feng Zhang

Abstract

The physical characteristics of extratropical cyclones are investigated based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, using entropy as its main tool, has been widely used in many scientific fields. The entropy balance equation contains two parts: the internal entropy production corresponds to dissipation and the external entropy production corresponds to boundary entropy supply. It is shown that dissipation is always present in a cyclone and the dissipation center is not always coincident with the low-pressure center, especially for incipient cyclones. The different components of internal entropy production correspond to different dissipation processes. Usually the thermal dissipation due to turbulent vertical diffusion and convection lags geographically the dynamic dissipation due to wind stress. At the incipient stage, the dissipation is mainly thermal in nature. A concept of temperature shear is introduced as the result of thermal dissipation. The temperature shear provides a useful diagnostic for extratropical cyclone identification. The boundary entropy supply and the entropy advection are also strongly associated with cyclones. The entropy advection is generally positive (negative) in the leading (trailing) part of a cyclone. A regional study in the western Pacific clearly demonstrates that the surface entropy flux and temperature shear are the most reliable early signals of cyclones in the cyclogenesis stage.

Full access
Feng Zhang, Zhongping Shen, Jiangnan Li, Xiuji Zhou, and Leiming Ma

Abstract

Although single-layer solutions have been obtained for the δ-four-stream discrete ordinates method (DOM) in radiative transfer, a four-stream doubling–adding method (4DA) is lacking, which enables us to calculate the radiative transfer through a vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere with multiple layers. In this work, based on the Chandrasekhar invariance principle, an analytical method of δ-4DA is proposed.

When applying δ-4DA to an idealized medium with specified optical properties, the reflection, transmission, and absorption are the same if the medium is treated as either a single layer or dividing it into multiple layers. This indicates that δ-4DA is able to solve the multilayer connection properly in a radiative transfer process. In addition, the δ-4DA method has been systematically compared with the δ-two-stream doubling–adding method (δ-2DA) in the solar spectrum. For a realistic atmospheric profile with gaseous transmission considered, it is found that the accuracy of δ-4DA is superior to that of δ-2DA in most of cases, especially for the cloudy sky. The relative errors of δ-4DA are generally less than 1% in both the heating rate and flux, while the relative errors of δ-2DA can be as high as 6%.

Full access
Feng Zhang, Kun Wu, Jiangnan Li, Quan Yang, Jian-Qi Zhao, and Jian Li

Abstract

The single-layer solutions using a four-stream discrete ordinates method (DOM) in infrared radiative transfer (IRT) have been obtained. Two types of thermal source assumptions—Planck function exponential and linear dependence on optical depth—are considered. To calculate the IRT in multiple layers with a vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere, an analytical adding algorithm has been developed by applying the infrared invariance principle. The derived adding algorithm of the delta-four-stream DOM (δ-4DDA) can be simplified to work for the delta-two-stream DOM (δ-2DDA).

The accuracy for monochromatic emissivity is investigated for both δ-2DDA and δ-4DDA. The relative error for the downward emissivity can be as high as 15% for δ-2DDA, while the error is bounded by 2% for δ-4DDA. By incorporating δ-4DDA into a radiation model with gaseous transmission, δ-4DDA is much more accurate than δ-2DDA. Also, δ-4DDA is much more efficient, since it is an analytical method. The computing time of δ-4DDA is about one-third of the corresponding inverse matrix method.

Full access
Feng Zhang, Yi-Ning Shi, Jiangnan Li, Kun Wu, and Hironobu Iwabuchi

Abstract

A new scheme is proposed for using the variational iteration method (VIM) to solve the problem of infrared radiative transfer in a scattering medium. This scheme allows the zeroth-order solution to be identified as the absorption approximation and the scattering effect is included in the first-order iteration. The upward and downward intensities are calculated separately in VIM, which simplifies the calculation process. By applying VIM to two single-layer scattering media and a full radiation algorithm with gaseous transmission, it is found that VIM is generally more accurate than the discrete-ordinates method (DOM), especially for cirrostratus. Computationally, VIM is slightly faster than DOM in the two-stream case but more than twice as fast in the four-stream case. In view of its high overall accuracy and computational efficiency, VIM is well suited to solving infrared radiative transfer in climate models.

Full access